1 Soorah an-Nahl, 16:44

2 Bukhaari & Muslim - it will later follow in full.

3 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

4 Maalik, Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i, & Ibn Hibbaan. A saheeh hadeeth, declared saheeh by several Imaams. I have given its takhreej in Saheeh Abi Daawood (451, 1276).

5 Saheeh - collected by Ibn al-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd (10/21/1- 2), Abu Daawood & Nasaa'i with a good sanad; I have given its takhreej in Saheeh Abi Daawood (761).

6 Abul-Hasanaat Al-Lucknowi says in An-Naafi' al-Kabeer liman yutaali' al-Jaami' as-Sagheer (p. 122-3), after ranking the books of Hanafi fiqh and saying which of them are dependable and which are not: "All that we have said about the relative grades of these compilations is related to their content of fiqh issues; however, as for their content with regards to ahaadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), then it does not apply, for many books on which the cream of the fuqahaa' rely are full of fabricated ahaadeeth, let alone rulings of the scholars. It is clear to us from a broad analysis that although their authors were otherwise competent, they were careless in their quotation of narrations."

One of these false, fabricated ahaadeeth which are found in some of the best books is: "He who offers the compulsory prayers on the last Friday of Ramadaan, that will make up for every prayer he missed during his life up to the age of seventy years" ! Lucknowi (rahimahullaah) says in Al-Aathaar al-Marfoo'ah fil-Akhbaar al-Mawdoo'ah (p. 315), after giving this hadeeth, "'Ali al-Qaari says in his al-Mawdoo'aat as- Sughraa and al-Kubraa: this is totally false, for it contradicts the ijmaa' (consensus of opinion) that one act of worship cannot make up for those missed over years. Hence, there is no point in quoting the author of an-Nihaayah nor the rest of the commentators on al-Hidaayah, for they are not scholars of Hadeeth, nor did they reference this hadeeth to any of the collectors of Hadeeth."

Shawkaani also mentioned this hadeeth in Al-Fawaa'id al- Majmoo'ah fil-Ahaadeeth al-Mawdoo'ah with a similar wording and then said (p. 54), "This is fabricated beyond doubt - I do not even find it in any of the compilations of fabricated ahaadeeth! However, it has become popular among some students of fiqh in the city of San'aa' in this age of ours, and many of them have started acting according to it. I do not know who has fabricated it for them - May Allaah disgrace the liars."

Lucknowi further says, "To establish that this hadeeth, which is found in books of rituals and formulas, is fabricated, I have composed a brief essay, with intellectual and narrated evidence, called Repelling the Brethren from the Inventions of the Last Friday of Ramadaan, in which I have filed points which will enlighten minds and to which ears will hearken, so consult it, for it is valuable in this topic and of high quality."

The occurrence of similar false ahaadeeth in the books of fiqh destroys the reliability of other ahaadeeth which they do not quote from dependable books of Hadeeth. The words of 'Ali al- Qaari contain an indication towards this: a Muslim must take Hadeeth from the people who are experts in that field, as the old Arabic sayings go, "The people of Makkah know its mountain- paths best" and "The owner of the house knows best what is in it."

7 Imaam Nawawi(rahimahullaah)'s words in Al-Majmoo' Sharh al- Muhadhdhab (1/60) can be summed up as follows: "The researching scholars of the People of Hadeeth and others say that if the hadeeth is weak, it will not be said regarding it, 'The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said/did/commanded/forbade ...' or any other phrase designating certainty, but instead it will be said, 'It is reported/quoted/narrated from him ...' or other phrases suggesting uncertainty. They say that phrases of certainty are for saheeh and hasan ahaadeeth, and phrases of uncertainty are for anything else. This is because phrases designating certainty mean that what follows is authentic, so they can only be used in the case of what is authentic, otherwise one would effectively be lying about him (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).

This convention is one ignored by most of the fuqahaa' of our age, in fact, by most scholars of any discipline, except for the skilled muhadditheen. This is disgusting carelessness, for they often say about a saheeh hadeeth, 'It is reported from him that ...', and about a da'eef one, 'he said' and 'so- and-so reported ...', and this is far from correct."

8 Publisher's note: Also in this category are the works of our teacher, author of e.g. Irwaa' al-Ghaleel fi takhreej Manaar as-Sabeel in 8 volumes, & Ghaayah al-Maraam fi takhreej ahaadeeth al-Halaal wal-Haraam, a takhreej of the ahaadeeth found in Dr. Yoosuf al-Qaradaawi's The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, (which contains many da'eef ahaadeeth).

9 The term, "authentic hadeeth" includes saheeh and hasan in the eyes of the muhadditheen, whether the hadeeth is saheeh li dhaatihi or saheeh li ghairihi, or hasan li dhaatihi or hasan li ghairihi.

10 an-Najm, 53:28

11 Bukhaari & Muslim.

12 Saheeh - collected by Tirmidhi, Ahmad & Ibn Abi Shaibah.

Later, I discovered that this hadeeth is actually da'eef: I had relied on Manaawi in declaring saheeh the isnaad of Ibn Abi Shaibah, but then I happened to come across it myself, and found that it was clearly weak, being the same isnaad as Tirmidhi and others - see my book Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad- Da'eefah (1783). However, its place is taken by the Prophet's saying (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), "He who relates from me a saying which he knows is a lie is indeed one of the liars", collected by Muslim and others.

13 'Abdul Hayy Al-Lucknowi says in Imaam al-Kalaam fimaa yata'allaq bil-Qiraa'ah Khalf al-Imaam (p. 156), as follows: "Whoever dives into the oceans of fiqh and the fundamentals of jurisprudence with an open mind, and does not allow himself to be prejudiced, will know with certainty that in most of the principal and subsidiary issues in which the scholars have differed, the madhhab of the scholars of Hadeeth is firmer than other madhhabs. Every time I go into the branches of difference of opinion, I find the view of the muhadditheen nearest to justice - their reward is with Allaah, and He will thank them. How could it be otherwise, when they are the true inheritors of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), and the sincere agents of his Law; may Allaah include us in their company and make us die loving them."

14 Subki says in al-Fataawaa (1/148): "The most important affair of the Muslims is the Prayer, which every Muslim must care about and ensure its performance and the establishment of its essentials. Related to Prayer are issues on which there is consensus and there is no escaping the truth, and other issues in which the scholars have differed. The correct approach is either to keep clear of dispute if possible, or to look for what is authentically- proven from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) and adhere to that. When one does this, his Prayer will be correct and righteous, and included in the words of the Exalted, "So whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work correct, righteous deeds." (Al-Kahf, 18:110)

I say: The latter approach is superior, nay, obligatory; this is because the former appeoach, as well as being impossible many issues, does not fulfil his command (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), "Pray as you have seen me praying", but instead leads to one's prayer being decidedly different to that of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).

15 From the poetry of Hasan ibn Muhammad an-Nasawi, as narrated by Haafiz Diyaa' ad-Deen al-Maqdisi in his article on the excellence of the Hadeeth and its People.

16 Baqarah, 2:213

17 Tirmidhi, Qudaa'i, Ibn Bushraan & others.

18 This is the sort of taqleed (blind following ) which Imaam Tahaawi was referring to when he said, "Only someone with party-spirit or a fool blindly follows opinion" - quoted by Ibn 'Aabideen in Rasm al-Mufti (vol. 1, p. 32 from the Compilation of his Essays).

19 al-A'raaf, 7:3

20 Ibn 'Aabideen in al-Haashiyah (1/63), and in his essay Rasm al-Mufti (1/4 from the Compilation of the Essays of Ibn 'Aabideen), Shaikh Saalih al-Fulaani in Eeqaaz al-Himam (p. 62) & others. Ibn 'Aabideen quoted from Sharh al-Hidaayah by Ibn al-Shahnah al-Kabeer, the teacher of Ibn al-Humaam, as follows:

"When a hadeeth contrary to the Madhhab is found to be saheeh, one should act on the hadeeth, and make that his madhhab. Acting on the hadeeth will not invalidate the follower's being a Hanafi, for it is authentically reported that Abu Haneefah said, 'When a hadeeth is found to be saheeh, then that is my madhhab', and this has been related by Imaam Ibn 'Abdul Barr from Abu Haneefah and from other imaams."

This is part of the completeness of the knowledge and piety of the Imaams, for they indicated by saying this that they were not versed in the whole of the Sunnah, and Imaam Shaafi'i has elucidated this thoroughly (see later). It would happen that they would contradict a sunnah because they were unaware of it, so they commanded us to stick to the Sunnah and regard it as part of their Madhhab. May Allaah shower His mercy on them all.

21 Ar.: halaal

22 Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Al-Intiqaa' fi Fadaa'il ath-Thalaathah al- A'immah al-Fuqahaa' (p. 145), Ibn al-Qayyim in I'laam al- Mooqi'een (2/309), Ibn 'Aabideen in his Footnotes on Al-Bahr ar-Raa'iq (6/293) and in Rasm al-Mufti (pp. 29,32) & Sha'raani in Al-Meezaan (1/55) with the second narration. The last narration was collected by 'Abbaas ad-Dawri in At-Taareekh by Ibn Ma'een (6/77/1) with a saheeh sanad on the authority of Zafar, the student of Imaam Abu Haneefah. Similar narrations exist on the authority of Abu Haneefah's companions Zafar, Abu Yoosuf and 'Aafiyah ibn Yazeed; cf. Eeqaaz (p. 52). Ibn al-Qayyim firmly certified its authenticity on the authority of Abu Yoosuf in I'laam al-Mooqi'een (2/344). The addition to the second narration is referenced by the editor of Eeqaaz (p. 65) to Ibn 'Abdul Barr, Ibn al-Qayyim and others.

If this is what they say of someone who does not know their evidence, what would be their response to one who knows that the evidence contradicts their saying, but still gives verdicts opposed to the evidence?! Therefore, reflect on this saying, for it alone is enough to smash blind following of opinion; that is why one of the muqallid shaikhs, when I criticised his giving a verdict using Abu Haneefah's words without knowing the evidence, refused to believe that it was a saying of Abu Haneefah!

23 Ar.: haraam

24 Ar.: fatwaa

25 i.e. Imaam Abu Haneefah's illustrious student, Abu Yoosuf (rahimahullaah).

26 This was because the Imaam would often base his view on Qiyaas (Analogy), after which a more potent analogy would occur to him, or a hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) would reach him, so he would accept that and ignore his previous view. Sha'raani's words in Al-Meezaan (1/62) are summarised as:

"Our belief, as well as that of every researcher into Imaam Abu Haneefah (radi Allaahu 'anhu), is that, had he lived until the recording of the Sharee'ah, and the journeys of the Preservers of Hadeeth to the various cities and frontiers in order to collect and acquire it, he would have accepted it and ignored all the analogies he had employed. The amount of qiyaas in his Madhhab would have been just as little as that in other Madhhabs, but since the evidences of the Sharee'ah had been scattered with the Successors and their successors, and had not been collected in his lifetime, it was necessary that there be a lot of qiyaas in his Madhhab compared to that of other imaams. The later scholars then made their journeys to find and collect ahaadeeth from the various cities and towns and wrote them down; hence, some ahaadeeth of the Sharee'ah explained others. This is the reason behind the large amount of qiyaas in his Madhhab, whereas there was little of it in other Madhhabs."

Abul-Hasanaat Al-Lucknowi quoted his words in full in An-Naafi' al-Kabeer (p. 135), endorsing and expanding on it in his footnotes, so whoever wishes to consult it should do so there.

Since this is the justification for why Abu Haneefah has sometimes unintentionally contradicted the authentic ahaadeeth - and it is a perfectly acceptable reason, for Allaah does not burden a soul with more than it can bear - it is not permissible to insult him for it, as some ignorant people have done. In fact, it is obligatory to respect him, for he is one of the imaams of the Muslims through whom this Deen has been preserved and handed down to us, in all its branches; also, for he is rewarded under any circumstance: whether he is correct or wrong. Nor is it permissible for his devotees to continue sticking to those of his statements which contradict the authentic ahaadeeth, for those statements are effectively not part of his Madhhab, as the above sayings show. Hence, these are two extremes, and the truth lies in between. "Our Lord! Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith; and leave not, in our hearts, any rancour against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed Full of Kindness, Most Merciful." (Al-Hashr 59:10)

27 Al-Fulaani in Eeqaaz al-Himam (p. 50), tracing it to Imaam Muhammad and then saying, "This does not apply to the mujtahid, for he is not bound to their views anyway, but it applies to the muqallid."

Sha'raani expanded on that in Al-Meezaan (1/26):

"If it is said: 'What should I do with the ahaadeeth which my Imaam did not use, and which were found to be authentic after his death?' The answer which is fitting for you is: 'That you act on them, for had your Imaam come across them and found them to be authentic, he would have instructed you to act on them, because all the Imaams were captives in the hand of the Sharee'ah.' He who does so will have gathered all the good with both his hands, but he who says, 'I will not act according to a hadeeth unless my Imaam did so', he will miss a great amount of benefit, as is the case with many followers of the Imaams of the Madhhabs. It would be better for them to act on every hadeeth found to be authentic after the Imaam's time, hence implementing the will of the Imaams; for it is our firm belief about the Imaams that had they lived longer and come to know of those ahaadeeth which were found authentic after their time, they would have definitely accepted and acted according to them, ignoring any analogies they may have previously made, and any views they may have previously held."

28 Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Jaami' Bayaan al-'Ilm (2/32), Ibn Hazm, quoting from the former in Usool al-Ahkaam (6/149), & similarly Al-Fulaani (p. 72)

29 This is well known among the later scholars to be a saying of Maalik. Ibn 'Abdul Haadi declared it saheeh in Irshaad as- Saalik (227/1); Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Jaami' Bayaan al-'Ilm (2/91) & Ibn Hazm in Usool al-Ahkaam (6/145, 179) had narrated it as a saying of Al-Hakam ibn 'Utaibah and Mujaahid; Taqi ad- Deen as-Subki gave it, delighted with its beauty, in al- Fataawaa (1/148) as a saying of Ibn 'Abbaas, and then said: "These words were originally those of Ibn 'Abbaas and Mujaahid, from whom Maalik (radi Allaahu 'anhu) took them, and he became famous for them." It seems that Imaam Ahmad then took this saying from them, as Abu Daawood has said in Masaa'il of Imaam Ahmad (p. 276): "I heard Ahmad say, 'Everyone is accepted and rejected in his opinions, with the exception of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)'."

30 From the Introduction to Al-Jarh wat-Ta'deel of Ibn Abi Haatim, pp. 31-2.

31 Ibn Hazm says in Usool al-Ahkaam (6/118):

"Indeed, all the fuqahaa' whose opinions are followed were opposed to taqleed, and they forbade their companions from following their opinion blindly. The sternest among them in this regard was Shaafi'i (rahimahullaah), for he repeatedly emphasised, more than anyone else, following the authentic narrations and accepting whatever the proof dictated; he also made himself innocent of being followed totally, and announced this to those around him. May this benefit him in front of Allaah, and may his reward be of the highest, for he was the cause of great good."

32 Related by Haakim with a continuous sanad up to Shaafi'i, as in Taareekh Dimashq of Ibn 'Asaakir (15/1/3), I'laam al- Mooqi'een (2/363, 364) & Eeqaaz (p. 100).

33 Ar.: halaal

34 Ibn al-Qayyim (2/361) & Fulaani (p. 68)

35 Harawi in Dhamm al-Kalaam (3/47/1), Khateeb in Al-Ihtijaaj bi ash-Shaafi'i (8/2), Ibn 'Asaakir (15/9/10), Nawawi in Al- Majmoo' (1/63), Ibn al-Qayyim (2/361) & Fulaani (p. 100); the second narration is from Hilyah al-Awliyaa' of Abu Nu'aim.

36 Nawawi in Al-Majmoo' (1/63), Sha'raani (1/57), giving its sources as Haakim and Baihaqi, & Fulaani (p. 107). Sha'raani said, "Ibn Hazm said, 'That is, ... found to be saheeh by him or by any other Imaam'." His saying given next confirms this understanding.

Nawawi says: "Our companions acted according to this in the matter of tathweeb (calling to prayer in addition to the adhaan), the conditions on coming out of ihraam due to illness, and other issues well-known in the books of the Madhhab. Among those of our companions who are reported to have passed judgment on the basis of the hadeeth (i.e. rather than the saying of Shaafi'i) are Abu Ya'qoob al-Buweeti and Abu l-Qaasim ad-Daariki. Of our companions from the muhadditheen, Imaam Abu Bakr Al-Baihaqi and others employed this approach. Many of our earliest companions, if they faced an issue for which there was a hadeeth, and the madhhab of Shaafi'i was contrary to it, would act according to the hadeeth and give verdicts based on it, saying, 'The madhhab of Shaafi'i is whatever agrees with the hadeeth.' Shaikh Abu 'Amr (Ibn as-Salaah) says, 'Whoever among the Shaafi'is found a hadeeth contradicting his Madhhab, he would consider whether he fulfilled the conditions of ijtihaad generally, or in that particular topic or issue, in which case he would be free to act on the hadeeth; if not, but nevertheless he found it hard to contradict the hadeeth after further analysis, he would not be able to find a convincing justification for opposing the hadeeth. Hence, it would be left for him to act according to the hadeeth if an independent imaam other than Shaafi'i had acted on it, and this would be justification for his leaving the Madhhab of his Imaam in that issue.' What he (Abu 'Amr) has said is correct and established. Allaah knows best."

There is another possibility which Ibn as-Salaah forgot to mention: what would one do if he did not find anyone else who acted according to the hadeeth? This has been answered by Taqi ad-Deen as-Subki in his article, The Meaning of Shaafi'i's saying, "When a hadeeth is found to be saheeh, then that is my madhhab" (p. 102, vol. 3): "For me, the best thing is to follow the hadeeth. A person should imagine himself in front of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), just having heard it from him: would there be leeway for him to delay acting on it? No, by Allaah ... and everyone bears a responsibility according to his understanding."

The rest of this discussion is given and analysed in I'laam al- Muwaqqi'een (2/302, 370) and in the book of al-Fulaane, (full title:) Eeqaaz Himam ulu l-Absaar, lil-Iqtidaa' bi Sayyid al- Muhaajireen wal-Ansaar, wa Tahdheeruhum 'an al-Ibtidaa' ash- Shaa'i' fi l-Quraa wal-Amsaar, min Taqleed al-Madhaahib ma'a l- Hamiyyah wal-'Asabiyyah bain al-Fuqahaa' al-A'saar (Awakening the Minds of those who have Perception, towards following the Leader of the Emigrants and Helpers, and Warning them against the Innovation Widespread among Contemporary Jurists in the Towns and Cities, of following Madhhabs with Zeal and Party- Spirit). The latter is a unique book in its field, which every desirer of truth should study with understanding and reflection.

37 addressing Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullaah).

38 Related by Ibn Abi Haatim in Aadaab ash-Shaafi'i (pp. 94-5), Abu Nu'aim in Hulyah al-Awliyaa' (9/106), al-Khateeb in Al- Ihtijaaj bish-Shaafi'i (8/1), and from him Ibn 'Asaakir (15/9/1), Ibn 'Abdul Barr in al-Intiqaa' (p. 75), Ibn al-Jawzi in Manaaqib al-Imaam Ahmad (p. 499) & Harawi (2/47/2) with three routes from 'Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal from his father that Shaafi'i said to him: ...etc; thus, it is authentic on the authority of Shaafi'i. This is why Ibn al- Qayyim attributed it definitely to him in I'laam (2/325), as did Fulaani in Eeqaaz (p. 152) and then said: "Baihaqi said, 'This is why he - i.e. Shaafi'i - used hadeeth so much, because he gathered knowledge from the people of Hijaaz, Syria, Yemen and 'Iraq, and so accepted all that he found to be authentic, without leaning towards or looking at what he had considered out of the Madhhab of the people of his land when the truth was clear to him elsewhere. Some of those before him would limit themselves to what they found in the Madhhab of the people of their land, without attempting to ascertain the authenticity of what opposed it. May Allaah forgive all of us'."

39 Abu Nu'aim (9/107), Harawi (47/1), Ibn al-Qayyim in I'laam al-Muwaqqi'een (2/363) & Fulaani (p. 104).

40 Ibn Abi Haatim in al-Aadaab (p. 93), Abul Qaasim Samarqandi in al-Amaali, as in the selection from it by Abu Hafs al- Mu'addab (234/1), Abu Nu'aim (9/106) & Ibn 'Asaakir (15/10/1) with a saheeh sanad.

41 Ibn Abi Haatim, Abu Nu'aim & Ibn 'Asaakir (15/9/2).

42 Ibn Abi Haatim (pp. 93-4).

43 Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Manaaqib (p. 192)

44 Fulaani (p. 113) & Ibn al-Qayyim in I'laam (2/302).

45 Ar.: ittibaa'

46 Abu Daawood in Masaa'il of Imaam Ahmad (pp. 276-7)

47 Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Jaami' Bayaan al-'Ilm (2/149).

48 Ibn al-Jawzi (p. 182).

49an-Nisaa', 4:65

50 an-Noor, 24:63

51 Even against their fathers and learned men, as Tahaawi in Sharh Ma'aani al-Aathaar (1/372) & Abu Ya'laa in his Musnad (3/1317) have related, with an isnaad of trustworthy men, from Saalim ibn 'Abdullaah ibn 'Umar, who said:

"I was sitting with Ibn 'Umar (radi Allaahu 'anhu) in the mosque once, when a man from the people of Syria came to him and asked him about continuing the 'Umrah onto the Hajj (known as Hajj Tamattu'). Ibn 'Umar replied, 'It is a good and beautiful thing.' The man said, 'But your father (i.e. 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab) used to forbid it!' So he said, 'Woe to you! If my father used to forbid something which the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) practised and commanded, would you accept my father's view, or the order of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) ?' He replied, 'The order of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).' He said, 'So go away from me.' Ahmad (no. 5700) related similarly, as did Tirmidhi (2/82) and declared it saheeh.

Also, Ibn 'Asaakir (7/51/1) related from Ibn Abi Dhi'b, who said:

"Sa'd ibn Ibraaheem (i.e. the son of 'Abdur Rahmaan ibn 'Awf) passed judgment on a man on the basis of the opinion of Rabee'ah ibn Abu 'Abdur Rahmaan, so I informed him of the saying of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) which was contradictory to the judgment. Sa'd said to Rabee'ah, 'We have Ibn Abi Dhi'b, whom I regard to be reliable, narrating from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) contrary to what I ruled.' Rabee'ah said to him, 'You have made your effort, and your judgment has been passed.' Sa'd said, 'Most amazing! I enforce the decree of Sa'd, and not the decree of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)! No, I shall withdraw the decree of Sa'd, son of the mother of Sa'd, and enforce the decree of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).' So Sa'd called for the written decree, tore it up and gave a new verdict."

52 In fact, he would be rewarded, because of the Prophet's saying (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam): "When a judge passes judgment, if he makes his effort (ijtihaad) and rules correctly, he will have two rewards; if he makes his effort (ijtihaad) and rules wrongly, he will have one reward." (Related by Bukhaari, Muslim & others.)

53 Quoted in the notes on Eeqaaz al-Himam (p. 93)

54 Fulaani (p. 99)

55 cf. al-Waaqi'ah 56:13-14

56 Ibn 'Aabideen in Haashiyah (1/62), & Lucknowi gave its source in an-Naafi' al-Kabeer (p. 93) as Ghazaali.

57 He himself says at the beginning of his Concise Shaafi'i Fiqh (printed in the margin of Imaam Shaafi'i's Al-Umm):

"This book is a selection from the knowledge of Muhammad ibn Idrees al-Shaafi'i (rahimahullaah) and from the meanings of his sayings, to aid the understanding of whoever wants it, knowing of his forbidding the following of his, or anyone else's, opinion, so that such a person may carefully look for his Deen in it."

58 In which he has explained his opposing his Imaam in about twenty masaa'il (nos. 42, 44, 103, 120, 158, 169, 172, 173, 228, 230, 240, 244, 274, 275, 284, 314, 331, 338, 355, 356 - from Ta'leeq al-Mumajjid 'alaa Muwatta' Muhammad (Important Notes on Muhammad's Muwatta'))

59 Ibn 'Aabideen mentioned him among them in Haashiyah (1/74) & in Rasm al-Mufti (1/17). Qurashi mentioned him in Al- Jawaahir al-Madiyyah fi Tabaqaat al-Hanafiyyah (p. 347) and said, "He was a reliable transmitter of Hadeeth. He and his brother Ibraaheem were the two shaikhs of Balakh of their time."

60 Al-Fawaa'id al-Bahiyyah fi Taraajum al-Hanafiyyah (p. 116)

61 Al-Bahr ar-Raa'iq (6/93) & Rasm al-Mufti (1/28).

62 Al-Fawaa'id ... (p. 116); the author then added a useful note:

"From this can be deduced the falsity of Makhool's narration from Abu Haneefah: 'that he who raises his hands during Prayer, his Prayer is ruined', by which Ameer, the scribe of Itqaani, was deceived, as has been mentioned under his biography. 'Isaam ibn Yoosuf, a companion of Abu Yoosuf, used to raise his hands, so if the above-mentioned narration had any foundation, Abu Yoosuf and 'Isaam would have known about it ... It can also be deduced that if a Hanafi ignored the madhhab of his Imaam in an issue due to the strength of the evidence against it, this would not take him outside the ranks of the Imaam's followers, but this would in fact be proper taqleed in the guise of leaving taqleed; do you not see that 'Isaam ibn Yoosuf left Abu Haneefah's madhhab of not raising the hands, but he is stil counted as a Hanafi?... To Allaah I complain of the ignorance of our time, when they insult anyone who does not follow his Imaam in an issue because of the strength of evidence against it, and expel him from the fold of that Imaam's followers! This is not surprising when those who do this are from the ordinary masses, but it is amazing when it comes from those who imitate men of learning but plod along that path like cattle!"

63 an-Noor 24:51-52

1 al-Anfaal, 8:46

2 ar-Room, 30:31-2

3 Houd, 11:118-9

4 cf. Al-Ihkaam fi Usool al-Ahkaam by Ibn Hazm, Hujjatullaah al-Baalighah by al-Dehlawi, & the latter's essay dealing specifically with this issue, 'Iqd al-Jeed fi Ahkaam al- Ijtihaad wat-Taqleed.

5 See Faid al-Qadeer by al-Manaawi (1/209) or Silsilah al- Ahaadeeth ad-Da'eefah (1/76, 77)

6 Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Jaami' Bayaan al-'Ilm (2/81-2)

7 ibid. (2/82, 88-9)

8 ibid. (2/83-4)

9 ibid (2/89)

10 cf. Al-Intiqaa' by Ibn 'Abdul Barr (41), Kashf al-Mughatta fi Fadl al-Muwatta' (pp. 6-7) by Ibn 'Asaakir, & Tadhkirah al-Huffaaz by Dhahabi (1/195).

11 Jaami' Bayaan al-'Ilm (2/88)

12 see Chapter Eight of the book, Maa Laa Yajooz min al-Khilaaf (pp. 65-72), where you will find numerous examples of what we have indicated, some of them involving scholars of Al-Azhar.

13 Al-Bahr ar-Raa'iq.

14 I now say: Muhammad al-Ghazaali's recent writings such as his newly-released book entitled As-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah bayna Ahl al-Hadeeth wa Ahl al-Fiqh (The Prophetic Sunnah between the People of Hadeeth and the People of Fiqh) have confirmed that he himself is one of those inviters to Islaam who are "themselves utterly confused"! His writings have for long betrayed his confusion, his distortion of the Sunnah, and his using his intellect to authenticate or falsify ahaadeeth, not by turning to the principles and science of Hadeeth, nor to the experts of that field; instead, whatever appeals to him, he authenticates, even if it is weak, and declares unreliable whatever is not to his liking, even if it is agreed to be authentic!

His above approach is shown most obviously in his discussion of the ahaadeeth in his previous book Fiqh as- Seerah , where he explains his methodology of accepting unreliable ahaadeeth and discarding authentic ones on the basis of the text of the hadeeth alone, from which the reader can see that the objective criticism of Hadeeth has no value in his eyes if it contradicts a "reasoned analysis", which varies enormously from person to person, for what is truth to one is falsehood to another! Thus the whole of Islaam becomes subject to personal whims, having no principles nor reference points except personal opinion; this is poles apart from the position of the early leading 'ulamaa of Islaam, "that the Isnaad is part of the religion; were it not for the Isnaad, people would have said whatever they wished."

His latest above-mentioned book has exposed to the people his Mu'tazilite methodology, his blatant disregard for the Imaams of Hadeeth and their efforts over the ages in serving the Sunnah, and distinguishing the genuine traditions from the unreliable ones, and his lack of appreciation of the efforts of the Imaams of Fiqh in their laying down principles and developing issues on that basis, for he takes from these and leaves from them whatever he wishes, with no consistency towards any set of principles or fundamentals!

15 Bukhaari & Muslim.

16 See the previous words of Imaam Muzani and Haafiz Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali.

17 Bukhaari & Muslim; see Appendix Two for the full hadeeth.

18 al-Anfaal, 8:24

1 This is a mutawaatir fact, so detail is not necessaary, although some of the evidence for it will follow.

2 see Appendix 3.

3 Collected by Bukhaari, Muslim & Siraaj.

4 Collected by Bukhaari, Muslim & Siraaj. Its takhreej is given in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (289 & 588)

5 Muslim; Tirmidhi declared it saheeh.

6 Abu Daawood, Ibn Hibbaan in Thiqaat (1/12), Diyaa' in Mukhtaarah with a hasan sanad,; Ibn as-Sukn declared it saheeh, as did Ibn Al-Mulaqqin in Khulasah Badr al-Muneer (22/1) and, before them, 'Abdul Haqq al-Ishbeeli in his Ahkaam (no. 1394 with my checking). Ahmad used it as proof, as Ibn Haani reported from him in his Masaa'il (1/67).

7 Ahmad & Tirmidhi , who declared it saheeh.

8 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

9 Bukhaari & Muslim.

10 Baihaqi with a sanad meeting the requirements of Bukhaari and Muslim.

11 Tirmidhi and Haakim, who declared it saheeh, and I have given it in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (292), the publication of which Allaah has made easy.

12 Daaraqutni, Haakim, Baihaqi, Tirmidhi, Ibn Maajah & Tabaraani; it is given in Irwaa' (296)

13 Bukhaari, Muslim, Ahmad, Siraaj, Tabaraani (3/108/2) & Ibn Sa'd (1/234). It is also in Irwaa' (290)

14 i.e..,the 'Asr prayer according to the correct saying of the majority of scholars, among them Abu Haneefah and his two students. There are ahaadeeth about this which Ibn Katheer has given in his Tafseer of the Qur'aan.

15 Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, and Ahmad.

16 Muslim and Bukhaari, and it is given in my book Irwaa' al- Ghaleel under Hadeeth 394.

17 Bukhaari, Abu Daawood and Ahmad.

18 ibid. Khattaabi said, "The meaning of 'Imran's hadeeth is intended for a sick person who is able to undergo hardship and stand with difficulty. Hence the reward of praying sitting has been made half of the reward of praying standing: encouraging him to pray standing while allowing him to sit." Ibn Hajr said in Fath al-Baari (2/468): "This deduction is valid".

19 Ahmad & Ibn Maajah with a saheeh sanad.

20 Tabaraani, Bazzaar, Ibn as-Samaak in his hadeeth book (67/2) & Baihaqi . It has a saheeh isnaad as I have explained in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (323).

21 Bazzaar (68), Daaraqutni, 'Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (82/2) and Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

22 Abu Daawood and Haakim, who declared it saheeh, as did Dhahabi. I have given it in as-Saheehah (319) and Irwaa' (383)

23 Muslim and Abu Daawood.

24 Bukhaari and Muslim.

25 i.e. voluntary prayer (night or forenoon), named so due to its content of tasbeeh (glorification).

26 Muslim and Ahmad.

27 Nasaa'i, Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1/107/2), 'Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (80/1) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

28 Abu Daawood & Ibn Maajah. It is a mutawatir hadeeth as Tahaawi has mentioned.

29 Abu Daawood & Bazzaar (53, az-Zawa'id); Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

30 ibid.

31 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi and Nawawi agreed. The first one is given in Irwaa' (284)

32 ibid.

33 Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/110/2) with a saheeh isnaad.

34 This is the sunnah about the pulpit: that it should have three steps, not more, To have more is an innovation, from the period of Bani Umayyah, which often causes an interruption in the row, and to get out of that by having it in the western corner of the mosque or in the mihrab is another innovation, as is the raising of it in the wall like a balcony to which one ascends by means of steps in the wall! Whereas the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam). See Fath al-Baari (2/331).

35 Bukhaari , Muslim (who collected the other narration) & Ibn Sa'd (1/253). It is given in Irwaa' (545)

36 lit., "screen, cover"; in the context of prayer, it refers to an object just beyond the place of prostration, within which nothing should pass, as is detailed in this section.

37 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

38 Bukhaari & Muslim.

39 Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1/93/1) with a sound isnaad.

40 Abu Daawood, Bazzaar (p. 54 - Zawaaid) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi and Nawawi agreed.

41 Bukhaari. The sutrah is a must for the Imaam or a person praying alone, even in a large mosque. Ibn Haani said in his Masaa'il from Imaam Ahmad (1/66): "Abu 'Abdullaah (i.e. Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal) saw me one day when I was praying without a sutrah in front of me, and I was in a (large) congregational mosque, so he said to me: 'Take something as a sutrah', so I took a man as a sutrah." This contains an indication that Imaam Ahmad did not differentiate between big or small mosques in taking a sutrah - and that is surely correct, but this is something neglected by most people, including imaams of mosques, in every land that I have visited, including Arabia which I was able to tour in Rajab of this year (1410), so the 'ulamaa should tell the people and advise them of this, explaining its ruling and that it is also required in the Two Sacred Mosques.

42 Bukhaari, Muslim & Ibn Maajah

43 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

44 i.e., their kneeling place.

45 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

46 Muslim, Ibn Khuzaimah (92/2) & Ahmad.

47 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

48 Nasaa'i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

49 Bukhaari , Muslim & Abu Ya'laa (3/1107).

50 Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1/95/1), Tabaraani (3/140/3) & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

51 Referring to the following prayer of the Prophet Sulaimaan ('alaihis salaam) which was answered by Allaah, as described in the Qur'aan: "My Lord! Forgive me, and grant me sovereignty not allowed to anyone after me, for You are indeed the Granter of Bounties. So we subjected to his power: the Wind, gently flowing to his order, wherever he wished; and the devils, every kind of builder and diver, and also others bound together in fetters." (Saad 38: 35-38)

52 Ahmad, Daaraqutni & Tabari with a saheeh isnaad, and similar in meaning to this hadeeth is found in Bukhaari and Muslim and others on the authority of several Companions. It is one of the many ahaadeeth which the Qadiani group disbelieve, for they do not believe in the world of the jinn which is mentioned in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah. Their method of discarding the texts is well-known: if it is from the Qur'aan, they change its meaning e.g. the saying of the Exalted "Say, it has been revealed to me that a group of jinns listened" (72:1); they say "i.e. a group of humans"! making the word "jinn" synonymous with "human"! Hence they play with the language and the religion; if it is from the Sunnah, then if it is possible for them to change it with a false interpretation they do so, otherwise they find it easy to declare it to be false, even if all the Imaams of Hadeeth and the whole ummah behind them are agreed on its authenticity, nay its being mutawaatir. May Allaah guide them.

53 Bukhaari & Muslim, and the additional narration is from Ibn Khuzaimah (1/94/1).

54 ibid.

55 i.e. mature, and what is meant by 'cut off' is 'rendered futile'. As regards the hadeeth: "Nothing cuts off the prayer", then it is a weak hadeeth as I have shown in Tamaam al-Minnah (p. 306).

56 Muslim, Abu Daawood and Ibn Khuzaimah (1/95/2).

57 ibid.

58 Nawawi says in Rawdah at-Taalibeen (1/224 published by Maktab al-Islami): "The intention is the purpose, so the person about to pray brings to mind that prayer and what is relevant of its characteristics, such as which prayer it is, whether it is obligatory etc. & he brings these things together in his intention with the first takbeer."

59 Bukhaari, Muslim and others. It is given in Irwaa' (no. 22)

60 Muslim & Ibn Maajah. The hadeeth contains an indication that he did not use to commence it with the words of some people: "I intend to pray etc." which is in fact agreed to be an innovation. But they differ as to whether it is a good or bad innovation, to which we say: "Indeed all innovations in worship are misguided, from the generality of his statement ('alaihis salaatu was salaam), '...and all innovations are misleading, and every misleading thing is in the Fire'." But this is not the place for a detailed discussion of this.

61 Tabaraani with a saheeh isnaad.

62 Abu Daawood, Tirmidhi and Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given in Irwaa' (no. 301). Literally, "the takbeer makes it haraam", i.e. the actions which Allaah has made haraam during it, "and the tasleem makes it halaal" i.e. what is allowed outside prayer. Just as the hadeeth proves that the door to prayer is shut, no worshipper being able to open it except with purification, it similarly proves that the prayer cannot be entered except with takbeer, and that it cannot be exited except with tasleem. This is the view of the majority of scholars.

63 Ahmad & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

64 Muslim & Nasaa'i.

65 Ahmad & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad.

66 Bukhaari & Nasaa'i.

67 ibid.

68 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

69 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/62/2, 64/1), Tammaam & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

70 Bukhaari & Nasaa'i.

71 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

72 Muslim & Abu Daawood. It is also given in Irwaa' (352).

73 Ibn Hibbaan & Diyaa', with a saheeh isnaad.

74 Ahmad & Abu Daawood, with a saheeh isnaad.

75 Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/54/2) with a saheeh isnaad, and Ibn Hibbaan declared it saheeh (485).

76 Maalik, Bukhaari & Abu 'Awaanah.

77 Nasaa'i and Daaraqutni with a saheeh isnaad. In this hadeeth there is evidence that grasping is from the sunnah, and in the previous hadeeth that so is placing, so both are sunnah. As for the combination of holding and placing, which some of the later Hanafis hold to be good, then that is an innovation; its form as they state is to place the right hand on the left, holding the wrist with the little finger and the thumb, and laying flat the remaining three fingers, as described in Ibn 'Aabideen's Footnotes on Durr al-Mukhtaar (1/454); so do not be confused by what they say.

78 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1/54/2), Ahmad & Abu Shaikh in Taareekh Isbahaan (p. 125); Tirmidhi declared one of its isnaads hasan, and its meaning is found in Al- Muwatta' and Saheeh Al-Bukhaari if considered carefully. I have fully quoted the isnaads of this hadeeth in my book Ahkaam al-Janaa'iz (p. 118)

NOTE: To place them on the chest is what is proved in the Sunnah, and all that is contrary to it is either da'eef or totally baseless. In fact, Imaam Ishaaq ibn Raahawaih acted on this sunnah, as Marwazi said in Masaa'il (p. 222): "Ishaaq used to pray witr with us he would raise his hands in qunoot, and make the qunoot before bowing, and place his hands on his breast or just under his breast." Similar is the saying of Qaadi 'Iyaad al-Maaliki in Mustahabbaat as-Salaah in his book al-I'laam (p.15, 3rd edition, Rabat): "the right arm is to be placed on the back of the left, on the upper part of the chest." Close to this is what 'Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal related in his Masaa'il (p. 62): "I saw that when praying, my father placed his hands, one on the other, above the navel." See Appendix 4.

79 Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in Irwaa' (374) as well as the following one.

80 Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i and others.

81 Baihaqi and Haakim, who declared it saheeh and it is as he said. It also has a strengthening hadeeth reported by ten of his Companions: transmitted by Ibn 'Asaakir (17/202/2). See Irwaa' (354).

*NB: These two ahaadeeth show that the sunnah is to fix one's sight on the place of prostration on the ground, so the action of some worshippers of closing their eyes during Prayer is misdirected piety, for the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).

82 ibid.

83 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad (Irwaa', 1771); what is meant here by 'the House' is the Ka'bah, as the context of this hadeeth shows.

84 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

85 Bukhaari, Muslim & Siraaj.

86 Tirmidhi & Haakim, who declared it saheeh, cf. Saheeh at- Targheeb (no. 353)

87 Bukhaari and Abu Daawood.

88 Transmitted by Abu Daawood and others. Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan declared it saheeh. See Saheeh at-Targheeb (no.555)

89 Ahmad and Abu Ya'laa. See Saheeh at-Targheeb (no. 556).

90 Mukhlis in Ahaadeeth Muntaqaah, Tabaraani, Rooyaani, Diyaa' in al-Mukhtaarah, Ibn Maajah, Ahmad and Ibn 'Asaakir. Haitami declared it saheeh in Asnaa al-Mataalib.

91 Muslim.

92 A woollen garment having marks.

93 A coarse garment without marks.

94 Bukhaari , Muslim & Maalik. It is given in Irwaa' (376).

95 "A small room embedded in the ground slightly, like a small chamber or cupboard" (Nihaayah).

96 Bukhaari , Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah. The Messenger (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) did not order the wiping out or tearing of the pictures but only removed them because - and Allaah knows best - they were not pictures of things having souls. The evidence for this is that he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) tore other pictures as proved by many narrations in Bukhaari and Muslim, and whoever wishes to explore this further should consult Fath al-Baari (10/321) and Ghaayah al-Maraam fi Takhreej Ahaadeeth al-Halaal wal-Haraam (nos. 131-145).

97 Bukhaari and Muslim.

98 Bukhaari , Muslim & Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/110/2). It is given in Irwaa' (no. 8)

99 Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

100 It is thus in most of the narrations; in some, it is wa ana min al-muslimeen ("I am one of the Muslims"). It is likely that this is because of the mistake of one of the narrators, and other evidence points to that, so the worshipper should say: wa ana awwal-ul-muslimeen ("I am the first of the Muslims"). There is nothing wrong with that, contrary to what some people say under the impression that this means "I am the first person who has this quality, while the rest of the people do not." But it is not so; this phrase actually represents competing to fulfil orders - similar to this is "Say: if the Merciful God has a son, then I am the first of the worshippers" (Zukhruf 43:81) and the saying of Moosa ('alaihis salam), "and I am the first of the believers." (A'raaf 7:143)

101 Azhari said: i.e. 'I do not worship anything other than You.'

102 labbaik: I am firmly & continually present in Your obedience; sa'daik: extremely happy under Your order and devoutly following the deen which You have chosen.

103 i.e. Evil cannot be traced back to Allaah because there is nothing bad in His actions, for they are all good, ranging from justice to grace to wisdom, all of which are good with no bad in them. But evil is evil because it cannot be traced back to Allaah. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said: "He is the Creator of good and evil, but the evil exists in some of His creatures, not in His act of creating nor in His actions. Hence the Exalted is cleared of any zulm, which is fundamentally to put something in other than its proper place. He does not put anything except in its suitable place, so that is all good. But evil is to put something in other than its proper place: when it is put in its proper place it is not evil, so be sure that evil is not from Him. ...But if it is said: Why did He create something which is evil? I would say: He did the creating, and His action is good not evil, for creation and action is with Allaah, and it is impossible for evil to be with, or attributed to, Allaah. Anything evil in the created cannot be traced back to Allaah, but His actions and His creation can be attributed to Him, so they are good." The rest of this important discussion as well as its conclusion is to be found in his book Shifaa' al-'Aleel fi Masaa'il al-Qadaa' wal-Qadr wat-Ta'leel (pp. 178-206).

104 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i Ibn Hibbaan, Ahmad, Shaafi'i & Tabaraani; those who specify it to optional prayers are mistaken.

105 Nasaa'i with a saheeh isnaad.

106 Nasaa'i & Daaraqutni with a saheeh isnaad.

107 i.e I glorify You, meaning I consider You totally free from any deficiency.

108 i.e. we are submerged in Your praise.

109 i.e. the blessings of Your Name are great, for great good springs from the remembrance of Your Name.

110 i.e. Your Glory and Might.

111 Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. 'Uqaili said (p. 103): "this has been narrated via several routes with good isnaads." It is given in Irwaa' (no. 341) Transmitted by Ibn Mandah in At-Tawheed (123/2) with a saheeh isnaad & Nasaa'i in al-Yawm wal-Laylah as mawqoof and marfoo', as in Jaami' al-Masaaneed of Ibn Katheer (vol. 3 part 2 p. 235/2)

112 Abu Daawood & Tahaawi with a hasan isnaad.

113 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah; declared saheeh by Tirmidhi. Abu Nu'aim also narrated it in Akhbaar Isbahaan (1/210) from Jubair ibn Mut'am who heard the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) saying it in voluntary prayer.

114 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

115 i.e. You are the Giver of Light to them, and those in them are guided by You.

116 i.e. the Protector and the constant Watcher over them.

117 haqq: truth, reality.

118 Bukhaari , Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Abu Daawood, Ibn Nasr & Daarimi.

119 Although that clearly does not rule out using them in the obligatory prayers also, except for the imaam, so that he does not prolong the prayer for the followers.

120 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

121 Ahmad, Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/119/2), Abu Daawood & Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Awsat (62/2) with one isnaad saheeh, and another hasan.

122 Tayaalisi & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

123 The three 'Arabic words hamz, nafkh, and nafth, were interpreted such by the narrator; all three interpretations are also traced back to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) with a saheeh mursal isnaad. By "poetry" here is meant the vain kind, for the Prophet (on whom be peace and blessings) said: "Truly, some poetry is wisdom" (Bukhaari ).

124 Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah, Daaraqutni & Haakim who, along with Ibn Hibbaan and Dhahabi, declared it saheeh. It is given along with the next one in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (342).

125 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi with a hasan isnaad. Ahmad endorsed it (Masaa'il of Ibn Haani 1/50).

126 Bukhaari , Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Tahaawi & Ahmad.

127 Abu Daawood & Sahmi (64 -65); Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given in Irwaa' (343). Abu 'Amr ad-Daani transmitted it al-Muktafaa (5/2) and said: "This hadeeth has many routes, and it is what is depended upon in this regard, and several of the past imaams and reciters preferred to stop at every verse, even if some were connected (in meaning) to the one after." I say: This is a sunnah which has been neglected by the majority of the reciters of this age, let alone others.

128 Tammaam ar-Raazi in al-Fawaa'id, Ibn Abi Dawood in al-Masaahif (7/2), Abu Nu'aim in Akhbaar Isbahaan (1/104) & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. Both of these recitations are mutawaatir.

129 Bukhaari, Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Baihaqi. It is given in Irwaa' (302).

130 Daaraqutni, who declared it saheeh, and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh. It is also in Irwaa' (302).

131 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

132 i.e. soorah al-Fatihah. It is an example of the wording including the whole prayer but intending only a part, as a way of emphasis on that part.

133 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Maalik, and Sahmi has a supporting hadeeth of Jaabir in Taareekh Jurjaan (144)

134 Baaji said: "He is referring to the saying of the Exalted "And We have bestowed upon you seven of the Oft-Repeated and the Grand Recitation." (Hijr 15:87). It is named the "seven" because it has seven verses, and "oft-repeated" because it is repeated again and again in prayer. It has been called "the grand recitation" to specify this name for it, even though every part of the Qur'aan is a grand recitation; similarly, the Ka'bah is "the House of Allaah" even though all houses belong to Allaah; this is by way of specifying it and emphasising its importance."

135 Nasaa'i & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

136 Bukhaari in his article on "Recitation behind the Imaam" with a saheeh isnaad.

137 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/80/2), Haakim, Tabaraani & Ibn Hibbaan who, along with Haakim, declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is in Irwaa' (303).

138 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it hasan; its isnaad is saheeh. (Saheeh Abi Dawood no. 807)

139 hadhdhan: reciting quickly, implying racing or hurrying.

140 Bukhaari in his pamphlet, Abu Daawood & Ahmad. Tirmidhi & Daaraqutni declared it hasan.

141 Maalik, Humaidi, Bukhaari in his pamphlet, Abu Daawood & Mahaamali (6/139/1). Tirmidhi declared it hasan; Abu Haatim ar- Raazi, Ibn Hibbaan & Ibn Qayyim declared it saheeh.

142 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/97/1), Abu Daawood, Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Ruwayaani in his musnad (24/119/1). It is given in Irwaa' (332, 394).

143 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/97/1), Daaraqutni, Ibn Maajah, Tahaawi & Ahmad from numerous routes, musnad and mursal. Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah declared it strong, as in al-Furoo' of Ibn 'Abdul Haadi (48/2). Boosayri declared some of its isnaads saheeh. I have discussed it in detail and investigated its routes of narration inthe manuscript version and then in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (no. 500)

144 Ibn Maajah with a saheeh isnaad. It is given in Irwaa' (506)

145 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Siraaj.

146 Bukhaari in his article, Ahmad & Siraaj with a hasan isnaad.

147 Maalik & Bukhaari in Af'aal al-'Ibaad with a saheeh isnaad.

* NB The view of the validity of recitation behind the imaam in quiet but not loud prayers was taken by Imaam Shaafi'i initially, and by Muhammad the student of Abu Haneefah in a narration from him which was preferred by Shaikh 'Ali al-Qaari and other shaikhs of the madhhab; it was also the position of, among others, the Imaams Zuhri, Maalik, Ibn al-Mubaarak, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, several of the muhadditheen, and it is the preference of Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah.

148 Tirmidhi & Ibn Maajah with a saheeh isnaad. Transmitted also by Aajuri in Aadaab Haml al-Qur'aan. As for the hadeeth, "He who recites behind the imaam, his mouth is filled with fire", it is fabricated (mawdoo') and this is explained in Silsilat al-ahaadeeth al-da'eefah (no. 569) - see Appendix 5.

149 Bukhaari in Juz' al-Qiraa'ah & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

150 Bukhaari , Muslim, Nasaa'i, & Daarimi; the additional wordings are reported by the latter two, and prove that this hadeeth cannot justify that the imaam does not say aameen, as reported from Maalik; hence, Ibn Hajar says in Fath al-Baari, "It clearly shows that the imaam says aameen." Ibn 'Abdul Barr says in Tamheed (7/13), "It is the view of the majority of the Muslims, including Maalik as the people of Madeenah report from him, for it is authentic from Allaah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) through the ahaadeeth of Abu Hurairah (i.e. this one) and that of Waa'il ibn Hujr (i.e. the previous one)."

151 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

152 Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ahmad & Siraaj with two saheeh isnaads.

*NB The aameen of the congregation behind the imaam should be done loudly and simultaneously with the imaam, not before him as the majority of worshippers do, nor after him. This is what I finally find most convincing, as I have explained in some of my works, among them Silsilat al-ahaadeeth ad-da'eefah (no. 952, vol. 2) which has been printed and published by the grace of Allaah, and Saheeh at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/205). See Appendix 6.

153 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad; the other hadeeth was transmitted by Ibn Abi Dawood in al-Masaahif (4/14/2). This and other similar hadeeths contain permission for infants to enter the mosque. As for the hadeeth on many lips: "Keep your small children away from your mosques...", it is da'eef and cannot be used for proof at all; among those who have declared it da'eef are Ibn al-Jawzi, Mundhiri, Haitami, Ibn Hajar al- Asqalaani and Boosayri. 'Abdul Haqq al-Ishbeeli said, "It is baseless".

154 Bukhaari & Muslim.

155 There are many ahadeeth mentioned further on which prove this.

156 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/100/1), Ahmad & 'Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (9/2) with a saheeh isnaad.

157 Ibn Nasr & Tahaawi with a saheeh isnaad; I take the meaning of the hadeeth as: Make every rak'ah have a complete soorah. The order is one of preference, not compulsion, from the evidence which follows.

158 Ahmad & Abu Ya'laa from two routes. Also see "Recitation in Fajr prayer".

159 As he did in Fajr, as will follow.

160 Details and sources will follow shortly.

161 i.e. a soorah after al-Fatihah.

162 Bukhaari as ta'leeq & Tirmidhi as mawsool, and he declared it saheeh.

163 nazaa'ir: soorahs which are similar in meaning, e.g. they both contain advice, commandments, or stories.

164 These are agreed to end at the end of the Qur'aan; the soundest view is that they begin with soorah Qaaf (no. 50).

165 Bukhaari & Muslim.

166 The first number is that of the soorah, while the second is the number of aayaat in the soorah. By inspecting the first of the two numbers in each case, it is easy to see that in many of these combinations, he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) did not stick to the Qur'aanic order of the soorahs, so this is evidence for the permissibility of doing this, even though it is better to follow the sequence of the Qur'aan. A similar case is to be found later under "Night prayer".

167 Muslim & Tahaawi.

168 Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. This hadeeth is general, so it applies to both recitation during prayer, whether voluntary or obligatory, and outside it. Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/132/2) has transmitted from Abu Moosa al-Ash'ari and Mugheerah ibn Shu'bah that they used to say this in obligatory prayers, and from 'Umar and 'Ali without such specification.

169 In the original, "the young man said".

170 dandanah: when someone speaks some words such that their intonation is audible but they cannot be understood; it is a little bit more than murmuring. (Nihaayah)

171 Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1634) & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. It has a supporting narration in Abu Daawood (no. 758, Saheeh Abi Dawood) and the basic story is in Bukhaari and Muslim. The first addition is in one narration of Muslim, the second in Ahmad (5/74), and the third and fourth in Bukhaari . Also under this heading is the hadeeth on the authority of Ibn 'Abbaas: "that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) prayed two rak'ahs in which he recited only al- Fatihah", transmitted by Ahmad (1/282), Haarith ibn Abi Usaamah in his musnad (p.38 of its zawaaid) and Baihaqi (2/62) with a da'eef isnaad. I used to declare this hadeeth hasan in previous works, until I realised that I had been mistaken, because this hadeeth depends on Hanzalah al-Dawsi, who is da'eef, and I do not know how this was unknown to me; maybe I thought he was someone else. Anyway, praise is due to Allaah who guided me to recognise my mistake, and that is why I hurried to correct it in print. Then Allaah compensated me with this better hadeeth of Mu'aadh which relates to what the hadeeth of Ibn 'Abbaas indicated. Praise be to Allaah by whose Grace good actions are completed.

172 There is Ijmaa' (consensus of opinion) of the Muslims on this, with successors passing it on from the predecessors, along with authentic hadeeths which establish this, as Nawawi has said, and some of them follow. See also Irwaa' (345).

173 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

174 Bukhaari & Muslim.

175 see the sections on his recitation in Friday prayer and the two 'Eid prayers.

176 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

177 Bukhaari & Muslim.

178 'Abdul Haqq said in Tahajjud (90/1): "As for voluntary prayers during the day, there is nothing authentic from him (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) regarding either quiet or loud recitation, but it would seem that he used to recite quietly during them. It is reported from him (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) that once, during the daytime, he passed by 'Abdullaah ibn Hudhaafah who was praying and reciting loudly, so he said to him: O 'Abdullaah, let Allaah hear, not us. But this hadeeth is not strong."

179 Muslim & Bukhaari in Af'aal al-'Ibaad.

180 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi in Shamaa'il with a hasan isnaad. The hadeeth means that he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to moderate between quietness and loudness.

181 Nasaa'i, Tirmidhi in Shamaa'il & Baihaqi in Dalaa'il with a hasan isnaad.

182 Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh, and Dhahabi agreed.

183 ibid.

184 The last seventh of the Qur'aan, beginning with soorah Qaaf (no. 50) according to the soundest view, as before.

185 Nasaa'i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

186 Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/69/1) & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreeed.

187 Bukhaari & Muslim.

188 Muslim & Tirmidhi. It is given along with the next one in Irwaa' (345).

189 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

190 Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. And what is apparent is that he ('alaihis salaam) did it on purpose to establish its validity.

191 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/76/1), Ibn Bushraan in al-Amaali & Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/176/1); Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

192 lit. "the two by means of which refuge is sought", i.e. the last two surahs of the Qur'aan, both beginning "Say: I seek refuge ... "

193 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

194 Bukhaari & Muslim.

195 Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Bazzaar with a good isnaad.

196 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

197 Moosaa is mentioned in aayah 45: "Then We sent Moosaa and his brother Haaroon, with our signs and manifest authority. ;" 'Isa is mentioned soon after in aayah 50: "And We made the son of Maryam and his mother as a sign - we gave them both shelter on high ground, affording rest and security and furnished with springs. "

198 Muslim, & Bukhaari in ta'leeq.form. It is given in Irwaa' (397).

199 Ahmad & Abu Ya'laa in their musnads, and Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah.

200 Bukhaari & Muslim.

201 ibid.

202 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

203 Bukhaari & Muslim.

204 Muslim, Ibn Khuzaimah & Haakim.

205 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

206 ibid.

207 Ibn Maajah & Ibn Khuzaimah.

208 Tahaawi, Ibn Hibbaan in his saheeh & Ibn Bushraan; Ibn Haajar declared it hasan in al-Ahaadeeth al-'Aaliyaat (no. 16).

209 Bukhaari & Muslim.

210 Muslim, & Bukhaari in Juz' al-Qiraa'ah (Article on Recitation).

211 Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/165/1).

212 Ahmad & Muslim.

213 Abu Daawood, Tirmidhee& Ibn Khuzaimah (1/67/2); the latter two declared it saheeh.

214 Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1/67/2).

215 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

216 Ahmad & Muslim. The hadeeth contains evidence that reciting more than al-Faatihah in the last two rak'ahs is a sunnah, and many Companions did so, among them Abu Bakr Siddeeq (may Allaah be pleased with him). It is also the view of Imaam Shaafi'i, whether in Zuhr or others, and of our later scholars, Abul Hasanaat al-Lucknowi took it in Notes on Muhammad's al-Muwatta' (p. 102) and said: "Some of our companions take hold a very strange view in obligating a sajdah sahw (prostration for forgetfulness) for the recitation of a soorah in the last two rak'ahs, but the commentators on al-Maniyyah, Ibraaheem al-Halabi, Ibn Ameer Haajj and others, have refuted this view extremely well. There is no doubt that those who said this were unaware of the hadeeth, and had it reached them they would not have said so."

217 Bukhaari & Muslim.

218 Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1/67/2) & Diyaa' al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah with a saheeh isnaad.

219 Bukhaari in Article on Recitation & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

220 Muslim & Tayaalisi.

221 Bukhaari & Muslim.

222 ibid.

223 Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad & Ibn Khuzaimah.

224 Ahmad & Muslim.

225 Bukhaari & Muslim.

226 ibid.

227 ibid (Bukhaari & Muslim).

228 Nasaa'i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

229 Tayaalisi & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

230 Ibn Khuzaimah (1/166/2), Tabaraani & Maqdisi with a saheeh isnaad.

231 Bukhaari & Muslim.

232 ibid.

233 called "at-toolayain": A'raaf (7) is agreed to be one; An'aam (6) is the other, according to the most correct saying, as in Fath al-Baari.

234 Bukhaari, Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/68/1), Ahmad, Siraaj & Mukhlis.

235 Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer with a saheeh isnaad.

236 Ahmad, Maqdisi, Nasaa'ee Ibn Nasr & Tabaraani.

237 Nasaa'i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

238 Ahmad & Tirmidhi, who declared it hasan.

239 Bukhaari, Muslim & Nasaai.

240 ibid.

241 ibid. It is also given in Irwaa' (295)

242 Nasaai with Saheeh isnaad.

243 Bukhaari & Muslim.

244 The narration is like this, with Nisaa' (4) before aal- 'Imraan (3), and thus it is evidence for (the permissibility of) departing from the order of surahs found in the 'Uthmaani copy of the Qur'aan in recitation. An example of this has already been seen.

245 Muslim & Nasaa'i .

246 Abu Ya'laa & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. Ibn al-Atheer says: "... the Seven Long surahs are Baqarah (2), aal-'Imraan (3), Nisaa' (4), Maa'idah (5), An'aam (6), A'raaf (7) and Tawbah (9)."

247 Abu Daawood & Nasaa'i with a saheeh isnaad.

248 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

249 Bukhaari & Muslim.

250 Nasaa'i & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

251 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

252 Daarimi & Sa'eed ibn Mansoor in his sunan with a saheeh isnaad.

253 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

254 Daarimi & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

255 Ar. shirrah: excitement, enthusiasm, keenness, energy. The shirrah of youth is his its beginning and its fervour/zeal. Imaam Tahaawi says: "This is the zeal/fervour of the Muslims in their actions which bring them nearer to their Lord. However they are bound to fall short and leave some actions (which they began due to this zeal) so the most beloved of their actions to Allaah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) were those done otherwise (and kept up), so he ordered them to carry out righteous deeds which they are able to do continually and keep to until they meet their Lord-the Mighty and Majestic. It is narrated from him (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) to clarify this that he said: "The actions most loved by Allaah are those which are the most regular, even if they are little." I say: this hadeeth which he prefixes with the words "it is narrated" is saheeh, agreed upon by Bukhaari & Muslim from the narration of 'Aa'ishah (Allaah be pleased with her).

256 Ar. fatrah: interval, break, lapse; referring here to a period of reduced enthusiasm.

257 Ahmad & Ibn Hibbaan in his saheeh.

258 Ibn Sa'ad (1/376) & Abu ash-Shaikh in 'Akhlaaq Nabi (281).

259 Daarimi & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

260 ibid.

261 Ahmad & Ibn Nasr with a saheeh isnaad.

262 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

263 Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

264 Muslim & Abu Daawood. This hadeeth and others make it disliked (makrooh) to stay awake the whole night, whether always or regularly, for it is against the example of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam); for if staying up the whole night were better, he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) would have done so, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. So do not be deceived by what is narrated from Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah) that he prayed Fajr with the ablution of 'Ishaa' for forty years!! (translator's note: see Tablighi Nisab: Virtues of Salaat by Maulana Zakariyya Kandhalvi for examples of this type of claim) For this narration from him is totally baseless; in fact 'Allaamah al-Fairoozaabaadi says in Ar-Radd 'alaa al-Mu'tarid ((44/1): "This narration is a clear lie and cannot be attributed to the Imaam, for there is nothing excellent about it, whereas it was the nature of the likes of the Imaam to do the better thing; there is no doubt that the renewal of purification for each prayer is more excellent, most complete, and best. This is even if it is correct that he stayed awake the length of the night for forty consecutive years! This story seems more like a fairy tale, and is an invention of some of the extremely ignorant fanatics, who say it about Abu Haneefah and others, and all of it is lies."

265 Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Tabaraani (1/187/2); Tirmidhi declared it saheeh.

266 Nasaa'i, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/70/1), Ahmad, Ibn Nasr & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

267 Ahmad & Bukhaari.

268 Nasaa'i & Haakim, who declared it saheeh.

269 Tirmidhi, Abul 'Abbaas al-Asamm in his al-Hadeeth (vol 2 no. 117) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

270 Nasaa'i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

271 The evidence for these two rak'ahs is found in Saheeh Muslim and others as a practice of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), but they oppose his saying: Make the last of your prayer at night odd (witr) transmitted by Bukhaari and Muslim. The scholars have differed in reconciling these two hadeeth, none of them being convincing to me, so the most cautious thing is to leave the two rak'ahs in compliance with the command of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam). Allaah knows best. Later I came across an authentic hadeeth which had a command for two rak'ahs after witr, so the order of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) agrees with his action, and the two rak'ahs are validated for everyone; the first command is thus one of recommendation, not negating the two rak'ahs. The latter hadeeth is given in Silsilat al-ahaadeeth as- saheehah (1993) - see Appendix 7.

272 Ahmad & Ibn Nasr and Tahaawi (1/202) and Ibn Khuzaimah & Ibn Hibbaan with a hasan saheeh isnaad.

273 Muslim & Abu Daawood. It is given in Irwaa' (345).

274 ibid.

275 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

276 ibid.

277 ibid.

278 This is the saying of Imaam Shaafi'i, Ahmad and Ishaaq, and some of the later Hanafis who researched took this view. As for the recitation of a soorah after it, this is the view of some of the Shaafi'ees and it is the correct view.

279 Bukhaari , Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i & Ibn al-Jaarood. The addition is not shaadhdh (odd) as Tuwaijiri thinks.

280 Nasaa'i & Tahaawi with a saheeh isnaad.

1 Ibn al-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd (162/1 from al-Kawaakib 575), Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

2 Muslim & Maalik.

3 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

4 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

5 Bukhaari in Af'aal al-'Ibaad with a saheeh isnaad.

6 In the section on "Recitation of one verse at a time".

7 Tarjee' -explained as a vibrating tone by Ibn Hajar; Manaawi said: "It arises from a feeling of joy & happiness, which he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) felt a good deal on the day of the conquest of Makkah."

8 Bukhaari & Muslim.

9 ibid. Ibn Hajar said in his commentary on "aaa (| | |)", "this is a hamzah with a fathah, followed by a silent alif, followed by another hamzah." Shaikh 'Ali al-Qaari quoted likewise from others and then said: "It is obvious that this is three prolonged alifs."

10 Bukhaari as ta'leeq, Abu Daawood, Darimi, Haakim and Tammaam al-Raazi with two saheeh isnaads. NOTE: This hadeeth was turned round by one of the narrators, who narrated it as "beautify your voices with the Qur'aan". This is a mistake in narration and understanding, and whoever declared it saheeh is submerged in error, for it contradicts the authentic explanatory narrations in this section. In fact, it is a prime example of a maqloob hadeeth, and the details of this brief note are in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da'eefah (no. 5328).

11 A saheeh hadeeth transmitted by Ibn al Mubarak in az-Zuhd (162/1 from al-Kawaakib 575), Daarimi, Ibn Nasr, Tabaraani, Abu Nu'aim in Akhbaar Isbahaan and Diyaa' in al-Mukhtaarah.

12 Daarimi & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

13 Abu Daawood and Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

14 Mundhiri said, "taghannnaa does mean to recite in a pleasant voice; Sufyaan bin 'Uyainah and others took the the view that it is to do with istighnaa (i.e. letting the Qur'aan make one dispense with worldly pleasures), but this is rejected."

15 Bukhaari, Muslim, Tahaawi & Ibn Mandah in Tawheed (81/1).

16 The scholars have said that musical instruments here means a beautiful voice and that the family of Daawood refers to Daawood himself; the family of so-and-so can be specifically for so-and-so only; Daawood ('alaihis salaam) had an extremely beautiful voice. This is mentioned by Nawawi in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim.

17 'Abdur Razzaaq in al-Amaali (2/44/1), Bukhaari, Muslim, Ibn Nasr and Haakim.

18 Abu Daawood, Ibn Hibbaan, Tabaraani, Ibn 'Asaakir (2/296/2) & Diyaa' in al-Mukhtaarah with a saheeh isnaad.

19 Ar. tafl: to blow with a minimum amount of saliva - Nihaayah.

20 Muslim & Ahmad. Nawawi (rahimahullaah) says, "This hadeeth contains a recommendation to seek refuge from the devil when he tempts, along with spitting to the left three times."

21 Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh & Dhahabi agreed.

22 Bukhaari & Muslim. This raising of the hands is reported as mutawaatir from him (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), as is the raising of the hands on straightening up after rukoo'. It is the madhhab of the three Imaams Maalik, Shaafi'i and Ahmad, and of the majority of scholars of hadeeth and fiqh. Imaam Maalik (rahimahullaah) practised it right up to his death, as reported by Ibn 'Asaakir (15/78/2). Some of the Hanafis chose to do it, among them 'Isaam bin Yusuf Abu 'Asamah al-Balkhi (d. 210), a student of Imaam Abu Yusuf (rahimahullaah), as has been explained in the Introduction. 'Abdullaah bin Ahmad reported from his father in his Masaa'il (p. 60), "It is related from 'Uqbah bin 'Aamir that he said about a man raising his hands during prayer, 'He earns ten good deeds for each such movement'." This is supported by the hadeeth qudsi, "... he who intends a good deed and then does it, Allaah writes it down with Himself as from ten to seven hundred good deeds", transmitted by Bukhaari & Muslim. See Saheeh at- Targheeb, no. 16.

23 ibid.

24 ibid.

25 Abu Daawood & Nasaa'i. Haakim declared it saheeh & Dhahabi agreed.

26 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

27 Bukhaari & Muslim.

28 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

29 Haakim , who declared it saheeh; Dhahabi & Tayaalisi agreed. It is given in Saheeh Abi Daawood (809).

30 Ibn Khuzaimah & Ibn Hibbaan in their Saheehs.

31 Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, & Ibn Khuzaimah.

32 Bukhaari, and Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad.

33 Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer and Mu'jam al-Sagheer, 'Abdullaah b. Ahmad in Zawaa'id al-Musnad & Ibn Maajah.

34 Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

35 Abu Daawood & Bukhaari in Juz' al-Qiraa'ah with a saheeh isnaad.

36 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

37 This vision was physically real, and was one of his miracles; it was confined to during prayer: there is no evidence for it being of a general nature.

38 Bukhaari & Muslim.

39 Abu Ya'laa in his Musnad (340/3491/1), Aajuri in al-Arba'een, Baihaqi, Tabaraani (1/192/1), Diyaa' in al-Muntaqaa (276/1), Ibn 'Asaakir (2/226/2, 414/1, 8/14/1, 76/2) with a hasan isnaad, & Ibn Khuzaimah declared it saheeh (1/82/1). Ibn Battah has a supporting mursal narration for the first part of the hadeeth, minus the addition, in al-Ibaanah (5/43/1).

40 Tayaalisi, Ahmad & Ibn Abi Shaibah; it is a hasan hadeeth, as I have explained in my footnotes on al-Ahkaam (1348) by 'Abdul Haqq Ishbeeli.

41 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/89/2), Tabaraani & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

42 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/89/1), Ibn Maajah & Ahmad, with a saheeh isnaad.

43 Abu 'Awaanah, Abu Daawood & Sahmi (61); Daaraqutni declared it saheeh.

44 Ahmad, Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah, Daaraqutni, Tahaawi, Bazzaar, & Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer, on the authority of seven Companions. Hence this refutes those who did not accept the specification of the glorifications to three times, such as Ibn al-Qayyim and others.

45 This can be deduced from the ahaadeeth which make it clear that he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to make his standing, rukoo' and sujood equal in length, as mentioned after this section.

46 A saheeh hadeeth, transmitted by Abu Daawood, Daaraqutni, Ahmad, Tabaraani & Baihaqi.

47 Abu Ishaaq said: subbooh means "the one who is free of any defect", while quddoos means "the Blessed" or "the Pure". Ibn Saidah said: Glorified and Blessed are attributes of Allaah, Mighty and Sublime, because He is glorified and sanctified by others. (Lisaan al-'Arab)

48 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

49 Bukhaari & Muslim. "Implementing the Qur'aan" refers to the saying of Allaah: "Then glorify with the Praises of your Lord, and seek His Forgiveness, for He is Oft-Returning." (Nasr 110:3)

50 This is an example of use of a general phrase coming after mention of individual items.

51 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Tahaawi & Daaraqutni.

52 Nasaa'i with a saheeh isnaad.

NOTE: Is there proof for combining two or more of these adhkaar in one rukoo', or not ? The scholars have differed about this. Ibn al-Qayyim was uncertain about this in Zaad al-Ma'aad. Nawawi chose the first possibility in al-Adhkaar, saying, "It is best to combine all of these adhkaar if possible, and similarly with the adhkaar of other postures." Abu al-Tayyib Siddeeq Hasan Khan disagreed with him, saying in Nuzul al-Abraar (84), "It is narrated with one of them here, another one there, but I see no evidence for combining. The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) would not combine them in one go, but he would say one of them sometimes, another one sometimes; to follow is better than to start something new." This latter view is the correct one, Allaah willing, but it is proved in the Sunnah to lengthen this posture, as well as others, until it is about the length of the standing: hence, if the worshipper wishes to follow the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) in this sunnah, the only way is to combine adhkaar, as Nawawi said, and as Ibn Nasr has related it in Qiyaam al-Layl (76) from Ibn Juraij as done by 'Ataa', or to repeat one of the adhkaar for which there is text for repetition, and this is closer to the Sunnah. Allaah knows best.

53 Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (331).

54 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah. The forbiddance is general, hence covering both obligatory and voluntary prayers. The addition in Ibn 'Asaakir (17/299/1), "as for voluntary prayers, then there is no harm" is either shaaddh or munkar - Ibn 'Asaakir pointed out a defect in it - so it is not permissible to act according to it.

55 ibid.

56 Bukhaari & Muslim.

57 Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

58 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood; Ar. faqaar: vertebrae, "the bones making up the spine, from the base of the neck to the coccyx" according to Qaamoos; see also Fath al-Baari (2/308).

59 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

60 ibid.

61 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Ahmad & Abu Daawood.

*NB: This hadeeth does not prove that those following an imaam should not share with the imaam in saying: Allaah listens to the one who praises Him, just as it does not prove that the imaam does not share with those following him in saying: Our Lord, to You be all Praise. This is because the purpose of this hadeeth is not to set out exactly what the imaam and his followers should say in this position; rather, it explains that the followers' tahmeed should be said after the imaam's tasmee'. This is supported by the fact that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to say the tahmeed when he was the imaam, and also because the generality of his saying, "Pray as you have seen me praying", dictates that the follower should say what the imaam says, e.g. tasmee', etc. Those respected brothers who referred to us in this issue should consider this, and perhaps what we have mentioned is satisfactory. Whoever would like further discussion on this issue should refer to the article by the Haafiz Suyooti on this matter in his book al-Haawi lil Fataawi (1/529).

62 Bukhaari & Muslim; Tirmidhi declared it saheeh.

63 Bukhaari & Muslim. The raising of the hands here is narrated in a mutawaatir way from the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), and the majority of scholars have supported it, including some Hanafis. See the previous footnote under Rukoo'.

64 ibid.

65 ibid.

66 Bukhaari & Ahmad. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) erred on this point in Zaad al-Ma'aad, rejecting the combination of "O Allaah!" with "and", despite the fact that it is found in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Musnad Ahmad, in Nasaa'i & Ahmad again via two routes of narration from Abu Hurairah, in Daarimi as a hadeeth of Ibn 'Umar, in Baihaqi from Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri, & in Nasaa'i again as a hadeeth of Abu Musa al-Ash'ari.

67 Bukhaari & Muslim; Tirmidhi declared it saheeh.

68 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

69 ibid.

70 jadd: wealth, might, power; i.e., the one who has wealth, sons, might and power in this world will not benefit from them in front of You; his possessions will not save him from You: only righteous deeds will benefit or save anyone.

71 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

72 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Abu Daawood.

73 Abu Daawood & Nasaa'i with a saheeh isnaad. It is given in Irwaa' (335).

74 Maalik, Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

75 Bukhaari , Muslim & Ahmad. It is given in Irwaa' (no. 307).

76 Bukhaari & Muslim (first sentence only), Daarimi, Haakim, Shaafi'i & Ahmad. By 'bones' here is meant those of the spinal structure, the vertebrae, as has preceded in the main text.

*NB: The meaning of this hadeeth is clear and obvious: to be at ease in this standing. As for the usage of this hadeeth by our brothers from the Hijaaz and elsewhere as evidence to justify placing the right hand on the left in this standing, it is far-removed from the meaning of the multitude of narrations of this hadeeth. In fact it is a false argument, since the placing mentioned is not referred to with regard to the first standing in any of the narrations or wordings of the hadeeth; therefore, how can "the bones taking their proper places" mentioned in the hadeeth be interpreted as referring to the right hand taking hold of the left before rukoo'?! This would apply if all the versions of the hadeeth could be construed to mean this, so what about when they imply an obviously different meaning? In fact, this placing of theirs cannot be inferred from the hadeeth at all, since what is meant by "bones" is the bones of the spine, as confirmed by the Sunnah, "... he would stand straight until every vertebra returned to its place."

I, for one, am in no doubt that to place the hands on the chest in this standing is an innovation and a leading astray, for it is not mentioned in any of the ahaadeeth about prayer, despite their large number. Had this practice any foundation, it would have reached us by at least one narration. Further, not one of the Salaf practised it, nor has a single leading scholar of hadeeth mentioned it, as far as I know.

This is not inconsistent with what Shaikh Tuwaijiri has quoted in his article (pp. 18-19) from Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullaah), "if one wishes, he may leave his hands by his sides, or, if he wishes, he can place them on his chest", for Imaam Ahmad did not attribute this to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), but said it from his own ijtihaad and opinion, and opinion can be erroneous. When authentic evidence establishes the innovatory nature of any practice, such as this one, then the saying of an imaam in its favour does not negate its being an innovation, as Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) has written. In fact, I see in these words of his, an indication that Imaam Ahmad did not regard the above- mentioned placing as being proved in the Sunnah, for he allowed a choice between practising it and leaving it! - Does the respected shaikh think that the Imaam also allowed a similar choice regarding placing the hands before rukoo'? Thus, it is proved that the placing of the hands on the chest in the standing after rukoo' is not part of the Sunnah. This is a brief discussion of this issue, which could be dealt with in more detail and depth, but due to lack of space here, that is done instead in my Refutation against Shaikh Tuwaijiri.

77 Ahmad & Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer with a saheeh isnaad.

78 Bukhaari & Muslim.

79 Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

80 Abu Ya'laa in his Musnad (284/2) with a good isnaad & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/79/2) with a different, saheeh isnaad.

81 Nasaa'i, Daaraqutni & Mukhlis in al-Fawaa'id (1/2/2) with two saheeh isnaads. This raising of the hands has been reported from ten Companions, and a number of the Salaf viewed it as correct, among them Ibn 'Umar, Ibn 'Abbas, Hasan Basri, Taawoos, his son 'Abdullaah, Naafi' the freed slave of Ibn 'Umar, Saalim the son of Ibn 'Umar, Qaasim bin Muhammad, 'Abdullaah bin Deenaar & 'Ataa'. Also, 'Abdur Rahmaan bin Mahdi said, "This is from the Sunnah", it was practised by the Imaam of the Sunnah, Ahmad bin Hanbal, and it has been quoted from Maalik & Shaafi'i.

82 Ibn Khuzaimah (1/76/1), Daaraqutni & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. All the ahaadeeth which contradict this are inauthentic. This way has been endorsed by Maalik, and similar is reported from Ahmad in Ibn al-Jawzi's al-Tahqeeq (108/2). Also, al-Marwazi quoted with a saheeh isnaad, Imam al-Awzaa'i in his Masaa'il (1/147/1) as saying, "I found the people placing their hands before their knees."

83 Abu Daawood, Tammaam in al-Fawaa'id, & Nasaa'i in Sunan as- Sughraa and Sunan al-Kubraa (47/1) with a saheeh isnaad. 'Abdul Haqq declared it saheeh in al-Ahkaam (54/1), and went on to say in Kitaab al-Tahajjud (56/1), "it has a sounder isnaad than the previous one", i.e. the hadeeth of Waa'il which is the other way round (knees before hands). In fact, the latter hadeeth, as well as being contradictory to this saheeh hadeeth and the preceding one, is neither authentic in isnaad nor in meaning, as I have explained in Silsilah al- Ahaadeeth ad-Da'eefah (no. 929) and al-Irwaa' (357).

It should be known that the way to differ from the camel is to place the hands before the knees, because the camel places its knees first; a camel's "knees" are in its forelegs, as defined in Lisaan al-'Arab and other books of the 'Arabic language, and as mentioned by Tahaawi in Mushkil al-Aathaar and Sharh Ma'aani al-Aathaar. Also, Imaam Qaasim al-Saraqusti (rahimahullaah) narrated in Ghareeb al-Hadeeth (2/70/1-2), with a saheeh isnaad, Abu Hurairah's statement, "No one should kneel the way a runaway camel does", and then added, "This is in sajdah. He is saying that one should not throw oneself down, as a runaway (or untamed) camel does, hurriedly and without calmness, but he should go down calmly, placing his hands first, followed by his knees, and an explanatory marfoo' hadeeth has been narrated in this regard." He then mentioned the hadeeth above.

As for Ibn al-Qayyim's extremely strange statement, "These words are incomprehensible, and not understood by the experts of the language", it is answered by the sources which we have mentioned, and also many others which can be consulted. I have also expanded on this in the refutation against Shaikh Tuwaijari, which may be published.

84 Ibn Khuzaimah(1/79/2), Ahmad & Siraaj; Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given in Irwaa' (313).

85 Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

86 Ibn Khuzaimah, Baihaqi & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

87 Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/82/2) & Siraaj have related the pointing of the toes in a different narration.

88 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, as did Ibn al- Mulaqqin (27/2); it is given in Irwaa' (309).

89 Abu Daawood & Nasaa'i with a saheeh isnaad.

90 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, as did Ibn al- Mulaqqin (27/2) it is given in al-Irwaa, (309).

91 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with saheeh isnaad.

92 Ibn Khuzaimah (1/10/1) with a hasan isnaad.

93 Daaraqutni, Tabaraani (3/140/1) & Abu Nu'aim in Akhbaar Isbahaan.

94 Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/82/2) & Siraaj have related the pointing of the toes in a different narration.

95 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood. Ibn Sa'd (4/157) related from Ibn 'Umar that he liked to point whatever of his body he could towards the qiblah when praying, even his thumbs.

96 Tahaawi, Ibn Khuzaimah (no. 654) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

97 Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad.

98 Tirmidhi & Siraaj; Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

99 This movement of the hand was deduced from the grammar of the 'Arabic text. (Fath al-Baari)

100 i.e. to draw them in and prevent them from being scattered, meaning to gather the garment or hair with the hands for rukoo' and sujood. (Nihaayah). This forbiddance is not only during prayer; the majority of scholars include tucking in the hair and garments before prayer in the prohibition. This is further strengthened by his forbidding men to pray with their hair tied, which follows later.

101 Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in al-Irwaa' (310).

102 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Ibn Hibbaan.

103 i.e. tied up or plaited.

104 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Ibn Hibbaan. Ibn al-Atheer says, "The meaning of this hadeeth is that were his hair loose, it would fall on the ground when in sajdah; hence, the man would be rewarded for the prostration of the hair. However, if the hair is tied, it is effectively as though it did not prostrate, for he compared him to someone whose hands are shackled together, since they would then not lie on the ground in sajdah."

It would seem that this instruction is limited to men and does not apply to women, as Shawkaani has quoted from Ibn al- 'Arabi.

105 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it hasan; Ibn Khuzaimah & Ibn Hibbaan declared it saheeh. See Saheeh Abi Daawood (653).

106 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

107 Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in Irwaa' (359).

108 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Ibn Hibbaan.

109 Abu Daawood & Ibn Maajah with a hasan isnaad.

110 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

111 Bukhaari, Muslim, Abu Daawood & Ahmad.

112 Ahmad & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

113 Ibn Khuzaimah (1/80/2), al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

114 Ahmad, Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah, Daaraqutni, Tahaawi, Bazzaar, & Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer on the authority of seven different Companions. See also the note on this dhikr under "Rukoo'".

115 See the previous note on this under "Rukoo'"also.

116 Saheeh, transmitted by Abu Daawood, Daaraqutni, Ahmad, Tabaraani & Baihaqi.

117 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

118 Bukhaari & Muslim.

119 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Tahaawi & Daaraqutni.

120 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

121 Ibn Nasr, Bazzaar & Haakim, who declared it saheeh but Dhahabi disagreed, however, it has a support which is mentioned in the manuscript version.

122 Abu Daawood & Nasaa'i, with a saheeh isnaad.

123 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Nasaa'i & Ibn Nasr.

124 Ibn Abi Shaibah (62/112/1) & Nasaa'i ; Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

125 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/106/2, 112/1).

126 ibid.

127 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Baihaqi . It is given in Irwaa' (456).

128 Nasaa'i, Ibn 'Asaakir (4/257/1-2) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

129 Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh, with a hasan isnaad from Ibn Mas'ood (887) & Baihaqi in mursal form. Ibn Khuzaimah prefixed it with, "Chapter: evidence that gesturing which is understood during prayer neither invalidates nor spoils the prayer" - this action is one which the People of Opinion have prohibited! In this regard, there are also ahaadeeth in Bukhaari, Muslim and others.

130 i.e. its colour is pure black, with no other colours mixed with it. (Nihaayah)

131 the whiteness refers to that part of the horse where chains and bangles are put, including the lower legs but not the knees.

132 i.e. the shining of the face due to the light of sujood.

133 i.e. the shining of the parts covered in ablution: the face, hands and feet. The shining marks of ablution on the face, hands and legs of humans is compared to the whiteness of a horse's face and legs.

134 Ahmad, with a saheeh isnaad. Tirmidhi related a part of it and declared it saheeh. It is given in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah.

135 Bukhaari & Muslim; the hadeeth shows that the sinful from among those regular at Prayer, will not remain the Fire forever; in fact, even those given to missing prayers out of laziness will not remain in the Fire forever, this is authentic - see as-Saheehah (2054).

136 Ar. haseer: a mat made of date-palm leaves or straw, etc.

137 This was because his mosque was not covcered with mats, etc. This is evident from a great many ahaadeeth, such as the next one and the one of Abu Sa'eed later.

138 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

139 Ahmad, Siraaj & Baihaqi, with a saheeh isnaad.

140 Bukhaari & Muslim.

141 ibid. A khumrah is a piece of matting, palm-fibre, or other material which is big enough for a man to place his face on it in sajdah; the term does not apply to larger pieces.

142 ibid.

143 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah. Ar. labisa usually means 'to wear', but here it is used to mean 'to use', i.e. to sit on; hence 'wearing' includes 'sitting on', so this indicates that it is prohibited (haraam) to sit on silk, because of the prohibition on wearing it established in the Saheehs of Bukhaari and Muslim, and others. In fact, a clear forbiddance of sitting on silk is related in these, so do not be confused by the fact that some leading scholars allow it.

144 Bukhaari & Muslim.

145 Abu Daawood & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

146 Bukhaari in his Juz' Raf' al-Yadain, Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad, Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah. It is given in Irwaa' (316).

To raise the hands here, and with every takbeer, was a view voiced by Ahmad, as in Ibn al-Qayyim's Badaa'i' (3/89): "Athram quoted from him (Imaam Ahmad) that on being asked about raising the hands, he said: With every movement down and up. Athram said: I saw Abu 'Abdullaah (i.e. Imaam Ahmad) raising his hands in prayer with every movement down and up."

This was also the opinion of Ibn al-Mundhir & Abu 'Ali of the Shaafi'is, and also a view of Maalik and Shaafi'i themselves, as in Tarh at-Tathreeb. The raising of the hands here is also authentically-reported from Anas bin Maalik, Ibn 'Umar, Naafi', Taawoos, Hasan Basri, Ibn Seereen & Ayyoob as- Sikhtiaani, as in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/106) with saheeh narrations from them.

147 Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a good isnaad.

148 Bukhaari & Baihaqi .

149 Nasaa'i with a saheeh isnaad.

150 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Abu Shaikh in Maa Rawaahu Abu az-Zubair 'an Ghair Jaabir (nos. 104-6) & Baihaqi .

151 ibid. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) overlooked this, so after mentioning the Prophet's (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) iftiraash between the two sajdahs, he said, "No other way of sitting here is preserved from him" ! How can this be correct, when iq'aa' has reached us via: the hadeeth of Ibn 'Abbaas in Muslim, Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, and others (see Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah 383); the hadeeth of Ibn 'Umar with a hasan isnaad in Baihaqi, declared saheeh by Ibn Hajar. Also, Abu Ishaaq al- Harbi related in Ghareeb al-Hadeeth (5/12/1) from Taawoos, who saw Ibn 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbaas practising iq'aa'; its sanad is saheeh. May Allaah shower His Mercy on Imaam Maalik, who said, "Every one of us can refute and be refuted, except the occupant of this grave", and he pointed to the grave of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam). This sunnah was practised by several Companions, Successors and others, and I have expanded on this in al-Asl.

Of course, this iq'aa' is different to the one which is forbidden, and follows under "Tashahhud".

152 Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad.

153 Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

154 Bukhaari & Muslim.

155 ibid. Ibn al-Qayyim said, "This sunnah was abandoned by the people after the time of the Companions. But as for the one who abides by the Sunnah, and does not glance sideways towards whatever contradicts it, he is unworried by anything opposing this guidance."

156 Abu Daawood, Tirmidhi, Ibn Maajah & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

157 Ibn Maajah with a hasan sanad. Imaam Ahmad chose to supplicate with this one; Ishaaq bin Raahawaih said, "If he wishes, he can say this three times, or he can say O Allaah! Forgive me ..., because both of them have been reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) between the two sajdahs." (Masaa'il of Imaam Ahmad & Ishaaq bin Raahawaih as related by Ishaaq al-Marwazi, p. 19).

158 This does not negate the validity of the expressions in the obligatory prayers due to the absence of anything to differentiate between those and voluntary prayers. This is the view of Shaafi'i, Ahmad & Ishaaq, who held that this was allowed in compulsory and voluntary prayers, as Tirmidhi has narrated. Imaam Tahaawi has also taken this view in Mushkil al-Aathaar. Proper analysis supports this argument, for there is no position in prayer where a dhikr is not valid, and so it is fitting that this should be the case here.

159 Bukhaari & Muslim.

160 Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed; the addition is from Bukhaari & Muslim.

161 Abu 'Awaanah & Abu Daawood with two saheeh sanads. This raising of the hands has supported by Ahmad, Maalik & Shaafi'i in narrations from them. See the previous note under Sujood.

162 Bukhaari & Muslim.

163 Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

164 Ahmad & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

165 see the fourth last note.

166 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood. This sitting is known as jalsah al-istiraahah (the sitting of rest) by the scholars of fiqh. Shaafi'i supported it, as did Ahmad in Tahqeeq (111/1) and favoured it more strongly, as is well-known of him that he would insist on following a sunnah which had nothing to contradict it. Ibn Haani said in his Masaa'il of Imaam Ahmad (p. 42), "I saw Abu 'Abdullaah (i.e. Imaam Ahmad) sometimes leaning on his hands when standing up for the next rak'ah, and sometimes sitting straight and then getting up." It was also the preference of Imaam Ishaaq bin Raahawaih, who said in Marwazi's Masaa'il (1/147/2), "The example was set by the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) of supporting himself with his hands when getting up, whether he was old or young." See also Irwaa' (2/82-3).

167 Bukhaari & Shaafi'i .

168 literally, "as one who kneads dough".

169 Abu Ishaaq al-Harbi with a faultless sanad, and its meaning is found in Baihaqi with a saheeh sanad. As for the hadeeth, "He used to get up like an arrow, not supporting himself with his hands", it is mawdoo' (fabricated), and all narrations of similar meaning are weak, not authentic, and I have explained this in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da'eefah (562, 929, 968).

170 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah. The pause negated in this hadeeth could be a pause for reciting an opening supplication, and not include a pause for reciting the isti'aadhah, or it could be wider in meaning than that; I find the former possibility more convincing. There are two views among the scholars regarding the isti'aadhah, and we regard the correct one as being that it is to be said in every rak'ah; the details of all this are given in al-Asl.

171 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a strong sanad.

172 Bukhaari & Muslim.

173 Ahmad with a good isnaad.

174 Ibn Maajah, Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh & Ahmad in Ibn Haani's Masaa'il (1/52). Jaabir bin 'Abdullaah (radi Allaahu 'anhu) said, "He who prays a rak'ah in which he does not recite the Mother of the Qur'aan has not prayed, except behind an imaam" - related by Maalik in Muwatta'.

175 Nasaa'i (1/173) with a saheeh isnaad.

176 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

177 Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a good sanad.

178 Tayaalisi, Ahmad & Ibn Abi Shaibah. About iq'aa', Abu 'Ubaidah and others said, "It is when a man presses his buttocks against the ground, keeps his shins upright, and leans his hands on the ground, the way a dog does." This is different to the iq'aa' between sajdahs, which is approved in the Sunnah, as covered previously.

179 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & others. It is given in Irwaa' (316).

180 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

181 Abu Daawood & Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad. It is as though the meaning is that he would not separate his elbows from his side, as Ibn al-Qayyim has elucidated in Zaad al-Ma'aad.

182 Baihaqi & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given, as well as the next one, in Irwaa' (380).

183 Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a good isnaad.

184 'Abdur Razzaaq; 'Abdul Haqq declared it saheeh in his Ahkaam (no. 1284 - with my checking).

185 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah & Ibn Khuzaimah. Humaidi (13/1) and Abu Ya'laa (275/2) added with a saheeh sanad on the authority of Ibn 'Umar: "and this is the shooting of the devil; no-one will forget when he does this", and Humaidi raised his finger. Humaidi also said that Muslim bin Abi Maryam said, "A man related to me that in a church in Syria, he saw images of Prophets depicted like this", and Humaidi raised his finger. This is an extremely strange remark, but its sanad up to "the man" is saheeh.

186 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

187 Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i, Ibn al-Jaarood in al-Muntaqaa (208), Ibn Khuzaimah (1/86/1-2) & Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (485) with a saheeh sanad. Ibn al-Mulaqqin also declared it saheeh (28/2), and it has a supporting narration in Ibn 'Adi (287/1).

188 ibid. About "supplicating with it", Imaam Tahaawi said, "This is evidence that it was at the end of the prayer." Hence, there is evidence in this that the Sunnah is to continue pointing and moving the finger until the tasleem, for the supplication is until then. This is the view of Maalik and others. Imaam Ahmad was asked, "Should a man point with his finger during prayer?" He replied, "Yes, vigorously." (Mentioned by Ibn Haani in his Masaa'il of Imaam Ahmad, 1/80). From this, it is clear that moving the finger in tashahhud is a proven sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), and it was practised by Ahmad and other imaams of the Sunnah. Therefore, those who think that it is pointless and irrelevant and has nothing to do with the Prayer, should fear Allaah, since because of this, they do not move their fingers although they know it to be an established sunnah; and they take great pains to interpret it in a way which is inconsistent with the 'Arabic way of expression and contrary to the understanding of the imaams with regard to it.

The amazing thing is that some of them will defend an imaam on other issues, even if his opinion conflicts with the Sunnah, with the argument that to point out the imaam's mistakes inevitably means to taunt and disrespect him. They then forget this and reject this established sunnah, at the same time mocking at those who practise it. Whether or not they realise it, their mockery also includes those imaams whom they often defend wrongly, and who are correct about the Sunnah this time! In fact, they are deriding the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) himself, for he is the one who brought us this sunnah, and so jeering at it is equivalent to jeering at him. << But what is the reward for those among you who behave like this except ... >>

As for putting the finger down after pointing, or limiting the movement to the affirmation (saying laa ilaaha: 'there is no god ...') and negation (saying: illallaahu: '... except Allaah'), all of that has no basis in the Sunnah; in fact, it is contrary to the Sunnah, as this hadeeth proves.

Further, the hadeeth that he would not move his finger does not have an authentic isnaad, as I have explained in Da'eef Abi Daawood (175). Even if it were authentic, it is negatory, while the hadeeth above is affirmatory: the affirmatory takes precedence over the negatory, as is well- known among the scholars.

189 Ahmad, Bazzaar, Abu Ja'far al-Bukhteeri in al-Amaali (60/1), 'Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (12/2) with a hasan sanad, Rooyaani in his Musnad (249/2) & Baihaqi .

190 Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/123/2) with a hasan sanad.

191 Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/40/1, 2/123/2) & Nasaa'i . Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed, and there is a supporting narration for it in Ibn Abi Shaibah.

192 Nasaa'i & Baihaqi with a saheeh sanad.

193 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

194 Baihaqi transmitted it as a narration from 'Aa'ishah with a good isnaad, as verified by Ibn al-Mulaqqin (28/2).

195 Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (338).

196 Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer (3/25/1) with a saheeh sanad. The literal meaning of the hadeeth is evidence for the validity of supplication in every tashahhud, even the one not adjacent to the tasleem, and this is the view of Ibn Hazm (rahimahullaah).

197 Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad.

198 Bukhaari & Muslim.

199 Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

200 Ar. tahiyyaat, i.e. "all words which imply peace, sovereignty and eternity, are due to Allaah." (Nihaayah)

201 Ar. salawaat, i.e. "all supplications which are used to glorigy the majesty of Allaah, for He is fully entitled to them, and none but Him is worthy of them." (Nihaayah)

202 Ar. tayyibaat, i.e. "all good and pure words suitable for praising Allaah, not those ones incompatible with his attributes with which kings were greeted." (Fath al-Baari)

203 meaning seeking of refuge with Allaah and being strengthened by him, since as-Salaam (Peace) is actually a name of Allaah. Hence, the greeting effectively means: Allaah be a watcher and safeguard over you. Similarly, it is said, "Allaah be with you", i.e. in His safeguarding, help and favour.

204 A term for all the good continuously emanating from Allaah.

205 Bukhaari, Muslim, Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/90/2), Siraaj & Abu Ya'laa in his Musnad (258/2). It is given in Irwaa' (321).

Ibn Mas'ood's statement, "We said: Peace be on the Prophet" clarifies that the Companions (radi Allaahu 'anhum) used to say, "Peace be on you, O Prophet" in tashahhud while the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) was alive, but when he died, they ceased to do that, instead saying, "Peace be on the Prophet". Undoubtedly, this was with the endorsement of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam); this is supported by the fact that 'Aa'ishah (radi Allaahu 'anhaa) would similarly teach the tashahhud in prayer with "Peace be on the Prophet", as transmitted by Siraaj in his Musnad (9/1/2) & Mukhlis in al-Fawaa'id (11/54/1) with two saheeh isnaads from her. Ibn Hajar says, "This addition shows clearly that they used to say 'Peace be on you, O Prophet', addressing him directly during his life, but when the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) died, they stopped addressing him and mentioned him in the third person instead, saying 'Peace be on the Prophet'." He also says in a different place, "Subki said in Sharh al- Minhaaj, after mentioning this narration from Abu 'Awaanah only, 'If this is authentically-reported from the Companions, it proves that after his time, it is not compulsory to address the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) directly in the greeting of peace, so one says: Peace be on the Prophet.' (Ibn Hajar continues:) This is authentic without doubt (i.e. because it is established in Sahih al-Bukhaari ), and I have also found strong support for it:- 'Abdur Razzaaq said: Ibn Juraij informed me: 'Ataa' informed me that the Companions used to say 'Peace be on you, O Prophet' while the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) was alive, but after he died, they would say 'Peace be on the Prophet', and this is a saheeh isnaad. As for Sa'eed bin Mansoor's narration from Abu 'Ubaidah bin 'Abdullaah bin Mas'ood, who reported from his father that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) taught them the tashahhud, and then he ('Abdullaah bin Mas'ood) said it (the tashahhud); Ibn 'Abbaas said: We used to say 'Peace be on you, O Prophet' only while he was alive, to which Ibn Mas'ood replied, 'This is how we were taught, and this is how we teach it', it would appear that Ibn 'Abbaas said this as a matter of discussion but Ibn Mas'ood did not accept. However, the narration of Abu Ma'mar (i.e. the narration of Bukhaari ) is more authentic, since Abu 'Ubaidah did not hear (ahaadeeth) from his father, and furthermore, the isnaad up to Abu 'Ubaidah is weak." (End of quote from Ibn Hajar)

These words of Ibn Hajar have been quoted by several scholars in their analysis, e.g. Qastalaani, Zarqaani, Lucknowi, etc. They all chose to give his words without commenting further. This discussion is treated more fully in al-Asl.

206 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Shaafi'i & Nasaa'i .

207 see next note.

208 These two additions have been proved to be part of the tashahhud from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam). Ibn 'Umar did not add them of his own accord (far is he above such a thing! ); in fact, he learnt them from other Companions who reported them from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), and he then added them to the tashahhud which he heard from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) directly.

209 Abu Daawood & Daaraqutni, who declared it saheeh.

210 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Abu Daawood & Ibn Maajah.

211 Maalik & Baihaqi with saheeh isnaads. Although this hadeeth is mawqoof, it is effectively marfoo', for it is known that this sort of thing is not said from personal opinion, since it were so, it would be no better than any other sayings of dhikr, as Ibn 'Abdul Barr has said.

*NB: In none of the types of tashahhud is there the addition: wa maghfiratuhu (... "and His forgiveness"), so one should not be accustomed to it. Hence some of the Salaf rebuked it, as the following narrations show:

Tabaraani (3/56/1) reported with a saheeh isnaad from Talhah bin Musarrif, who said: Rabee' bin Khaitham added during tashahhud, "... and His blessings, and His forgiveness"! So 'Alqamah said, "We stop where we were taught: Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allaah and His blessings"; 'Alqamah was actually following the example of his teacher 'Abdullaah bin Mas'ood (radi Allaahu 'anhu), from whom it is authentically-reported that he was teaching a man the tashahhud: when he got to "I bear witness that there is no (true) god except Allaah ...", the man said: "alone, He has no partner", to which 'Abdullaah said, "He is so, but we stop at where we were taught." (Transmitted by Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Awsat, no. 2848, with a saheeh isnaad.)

212 Abu 'Awaanah in his Saheeh (2/324) & Nasaa'i .

213 They had said, "O Messenger of Allaah, we have been taught how to send peace on you (i.e. in tashahhud), but how do we send prayers on you? He said, "Say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad ..." etc. Thus he did not specify one tashahhud to the exclusion of another, so there is evidence here to establish sending prayers on him in the first tashahhud also. This is the way of Imaam Shaafi'i, as in the text of his book al-Umm, and it is held to be correct by his companions, as Nawawi has explained in al-Majmoo' (3/460) and supported in Rawdah Taalibeen (1/263). It is also the view of Wazeer bin Hubairah al-Hanbali in al-Ifsaah, as Ibn Rajab ha quoted and strongly supported in Dhail Tabaqaat (1/280). Many ahaadeeth exist about sending prayers on him (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) in tashahhud; in none of them is there any such specification mentioned. In fact, these ahaadeeth are general, hence including every tashahhud, and I have given them in al-Asl as ta'leeq, but not in the main text, for they do not satisfy our conditions for authenticity. However, they do support each other in meaning, and those who reject and oppose this have no authentic evidence to use as proof, as I have detailed in al-Asl. Similarly, to say that adding anything to "O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad" is makrooh has no basis in the Sunnah, nor is there any convincing proof for it. In fact, we see that whoever says this does not implement the previous instruction of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), "Say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad ..." ; there is more to this discussion in al-Asl.

214 One of the earliest views about the meaning of "sending prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)" is that of Abu al-'Aaliyah (with reference to Surah al-Ahzaab, 33:56), "Allaah's sending prayers on his Prophet means His exalting him and raising his rank; the angels' and others' sending prayers means their seeking this from Allaah, and here it is meant asking the prayers to be increased, not asking for the original prayer in itself." Ibn Hajar quoted this in Fath al-Baari, and went on to refute the widespread notion that the Lord's prayer on someone is His Mercy; Ibn al-Qayyim also clarified this in Jalaa' al-Afhaam, leaving little scope for further comment.

215 from barakah: growth, increase. Hence this supplication secures for Muhammad the good which Allaah granted to the family of Ibraaheem, continual, established good, as well as its multiplying and increase.

216 Ahmad & Tahaawi with a saheeh sanad.

217 see next note.

218 These two additions are conclusively found in Bukhaari, Tahaawi, Baihaqi, Ahmad & Nasaa'i . They also exist via different routes of narration in other types of this supplication (see nos. 3,7), and so do not be confused by Ibn al-Qayyim's view in Jalaa' al-Afhaam (p. 198), following in the footsteps of his great teacher Ibn Taymiyyah in al-Fataawaa (1/16), "There is no authentic hadeeth with the phrases 'Ibraaheem' and 'the family of Ibraaheem' together"; here, we have shown you such authentic ahaadeeth. Ibn al- Qayyim's error is further established by the fact that he himself declared no. 7 saheeh, which contains what he denied above!

219 Bukhaari, Muslim, Humaidi (138/1) & Ibn Mandah (68/2), who said, "There is consensus on this hadeeth being authentic."

220 Ahmad, Nasaa'i & Abu Ya'laa in his Musnad (44/2) with a saheeh sanad.

221 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/132/1) & Abu Daawood; Haakim declared it saheeh.

222 Bukhaari, Nasaa'i, Tahaawi, Ahmad & Ismaa'eel al-Qaadi in Fadl as-Salaah 'alaa Nabi sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam (p. 28 1st ed., p. 62 2nd ed. with my checking).

223 Bukhaari, Muslim & Nasaa'i.

224 Nasaa'i, Tahaawi, Abu Sa'eed bin al-'Arabi in al-Mu'jam (79/2) with a saheeh sanad. Ibn al-Qayyim gave its source as Muhammad bin Ishaaq as-Siraaj in Jalaa' al-Afhaam (pp. 14- 15) and then declared it saheeh. This wording includes both 'Ibraaheem' and 'the family of Ibraaheem', something overlooked by both Ibn al-Qayyim & his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah, as explained above.

225 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

226 a famous grammarian and scholar of the 'Arabic language of the second century AH.

227 which is preserved in the Zaahiriyyah Library in Damascus.

228 Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Tabaraani with various isnaads from Ibn Mas'ood - the details are given in as-Saheehah (878) - and there is a supporting hadeeth of Ibn az-Zubair in Majma' az- Zawaa'id (2/142).

229 Bukhaari & Muslim.

230 Abu Ya'laa in his Musnad (284/2) with a good isnaad. It is given in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (604).

231 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

232 ibid.

233 Abu 'Awaanah & Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad.

234 literally, "as one who kneads dough."

235 Harbi in Ghareeb al-Hadeeth; its meaning is found in Bukhaari and Abu Daawood. As for the hadeeth, he forbade that a man should support himself with his hand when getting up during prayer", it is munkar and not authentic, as I have explained in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da'eefah (967).

236 Qunoot: carries several meanings, e.g. humility, devotion. What is meant here is the special supplication while standing during prayer.

237 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

238 ibid.

239 Ahmad & Tabaraani with a saheeh sanad. To raise the hands in qunoot is the madhhab of Ahmad and also Ishaaq bin Raahawaih, cf. Marwazi's Masaa'il (p. 23). As for wiping the face with the hands, it is not reported in this position, and is thus an innovation; as for outside of prayer, it is not authentically- reported: all that has been transmitted in this regard is either weak or very weak, as I have shown in Da'eef Abi Daawood (262) & Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (597). This is why 'Izz bin 'Abd as-Salaam said in one of his fatwas, "Only an ignorant person does it." See Appendix 8.

240 Abu Daawood & Siraaj ; Haakim declared it saheeh, and Dhahabi & others agreed.

241 Abu Daawood, Siraaj & Daaraqutni with two hasan sanads.

242 Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1/78/2) & Khateeb in Kitaab al-Qunoot with a saheeh sanad.

243 Bukhaari & Ahmad; the addition is in Muslim.

244 Nasaa'i, Ahmad, Siraaj (109/1) & Abu Ya'laa in his Musnad with a good sanad.

245 Ibn Nasr & Daaraqutni with a saheeh sanad.

246 We have said, "... sometimes" because the Companions who narrated the Witr prayer did not mention the qunoot in it, whereas had the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) done so always, they would have all mentioned it. However, Ubayy ibn Ka'b alone narrated the qunoot in Witr, so this shows that he used to do it sometimes. Hence, this is evidence that qunoot in Witr is not obligatory (waajib), and this is the opinion of the majority of scholars. For this reason, the researching Hanafi scholar, Ibn al-Humaam, recognised in Fath al-Qadeer (1/306,359,360) that the view of it being obligatory is feeble and not substantiated by evidence. This shows his fairness and lack of party-spirit, for this view which he has supported is contrary to his madhhab!

247 Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/41/1), Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i in Sunan al- Kubraa (218/1-2), Ahmad, Tabaraani, Baihaqi & Ibn 'Asaakir (4/244/2) narrated this, along with the supplication after it, with a saheeh sanad. Ibn Mandah narrated the supplication only in Tawheed (70/2) with a different, hasan sanad. Its takhreej is also given in Irwaa' (426).

248 Ibn Khuzaimah (1/119/2) & also Ibn Abi Shaibah etc., as for the last hadeeth.

*NB: Nasaa'i adds at the end of the qunoot: wa sall-Allaahu 'ala-n-Nabiyy al-Ummiyy ("may Allaah send prayers on the Unlettered Prophet"), related with a weak isnaad; among those who declared it da'eef are Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalaani & Zurqaani. Therefore, we have not included it in our system of combining acceptable narrations. 'Izz bin 'Abd as-Salaam said in al- Fataawaa (66/1,1962), "To send prayers on the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) in qunoot is not authentic, nor is it fitting to add to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)'s prayer in any way." This view of his shows that he did not widen the argument by including the idea of bid'ah hasanah ("good" innovation), as some of the later scholars are prone to doing !

However, it is proved in the hadeeth about Ubayy bin Ka'b leading the people during the Ramadaan night prayers that he used to send prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) at the end of the qunoot, and that was during the reign of 'Umar (radi Allaahu 'anhu) - transmitted by Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1097). Similarly is proved from Abu Haleemah Mu'aadh al-Ansaari, who also used to lead them during 'Umar's rule - transmitted by Ismaa'eel al-Qaadi (no. 107) & others, so this addition is justified by the practice of the Salaf, and it is thus not fitting to categorically state that this addition is an innovation. Allaah knows best.

249 Bukhaari .

250 ibid. As for two-rak'ah prayers such as Fajr, the Sunnah is to sit muftarishan. This difference in detail is documented from Imaam Ahmad, cf. Ibn Hani's Masaa'il of Imaam Ahmad (p. 79).

251 Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh sanad.

252 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

253 ibid.

254 ibid.

255 Ahmad, Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/83/2) & al-Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

It should be known that this hadeeth proves that salaah (sending prayers) on the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) in this tashahhud is obligatory, due to the command about it. This opinion was taken by Imaam Shaafi'i and by Imaam Ahmad in the later of the two narrations from him, and before them by several Companions, as well as other people of knowledge. Because of this, Aajuri said in Sharee'ah (p. 415): "He who does not send prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) in the final tashahhud must repeat the prayer." Hence, those who label Imaam Shaafi'i as being alone and odd in his opinion on this, are not being just, as the faqeeh Haitami has explained in Darr al-Mandood (sections 13-16).

256 Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad.

257 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Nasaa'i & Ibn al-Jaarood in al-Muntaqaa (27). It is given in Irwaa' (350).

258 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh sanad.

259 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

260 We have not said, "... in his tashahhud" because the text is "... in his prayer", not specifying either tashahhud or anything else. Hence, it covers all positions suitable for supplication, e.g. prostration and tashahhud; the instruction to supplicate in these two postures has been mentioned.

261 Bukhaari & Muslim. Athram said, "I asked Ahmad: 'With what (words) should I supplicate after tashahhud ?' He said, 'As has been narrated.' I said, 'Didn't the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) say, "Then he should select whichever supplication he likes" ?' He said, 'He should select out of what has been narrated.' I repeated the question: he said, 'From what has been narrated'." This was quoted by Ibn Taymiyyah (Majmoo' al-Fataawaa 69/218/1), who endorsed it, adding, "Hence, 'whichever supplication' refers to the supplications which Allaah loves, not to any supplication ..."; later he said, "Hence, it is best to say: (one should supplicate) with the approved, established supplications, and these are what have ben narrated and those that are beneficial." This is so, but to recognise which supplications are indeed beneficial depends on authentic knowledge, and this is rarely found among the people, so it is best to stick to the supplications quoted, especially when they include what the worshipper wishes to request. Allaah knows best.

262 ma'tham: what causes a man to sin, or the sin itself.

263 maghram: burden; here it means debt, as proved by the rest of the hadeeth, in which 'Aa'ishah said, "Someone said to him, 'Why do you seek refuge from maghram, so often, O Messenger of Allaah ?' He replied, Truly, when a man becomes indebted, he speaks and lies, and he promises and breaks his promise."

264 Bukhaari & Muslim.

265 i.e. from the evil of the bad actions I have done, and from the evil of not doing good actions.

266 Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad & Ibn Abi 'Aasim in his as-Sunnah (no. 370 - with my checking); the addition is from the latter.

267 Ahmad & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

268 Nasaa'i & al-Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

269 Bukhaari & Muslim.

270 Ahmad, Tayaalisi, Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Ibn Maajah & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. I have given its takhreej in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (1542).

271 dandanah: to speak such the intonation is audible, but the words are incomprehensible - in the case, the quiet words of supplication. The final statement means, "Our words are like yours."

272 Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/87/1) with a saheeh isnaad.

273 Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Ibn Khuzaimah; Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

274 This is tawassul (a seeking of approach) to Allaah through His most beautiful names and attributes, and this is what Allaah the Exalted commands: "To Allaah belong the most beautiful names, so call on Him by them." (A'raaf 7:180). As for seeking to approaching Allaah through other things, e.g. for so-and-so's sake, or by so-and-so's right, status, dignity, etc., there is text from Imaam Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah) and his companions that such a practice is at least disliked (makrooh); in general it is prohibited (haraam). Therefore, it is a pity that one sees most of the people, among them many shaikhs, totally neglecting the approved tawassul, - you will never hear them approaching Allaah this way - but they are well-versed in innovated forms of tawassul, which are at the very least debatable, as though no other way is allowed! Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah has composed an extremely good essay on this subject entitled Tawassul and Waseelah ("Approaching Allaah, and the Means of doing so"), which should be consulted, for it is very important, and there is little to compare with it in its coverage. There is also my article Tawassul - its types and its rules, which is also important in its subject-matter and format, and also refutes some of the latest misconceptions advanced by contemporary doctors of religion. May Allaah guide us and them.

275 Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i, Ahmad, Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Tabaraani & Ibn Mandah in Tawheed (44/2, 67/1, 70/1-2) with saheeh isnaads.

276 Muslim & Abu 'Awaanah.

277 Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

278 Abu Daawood & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/87/2) with a saheeh sanad. 'Abdul Haqq also declared it saheeh in his Ahkaam (56/2), as did Nawawi & Ibn Hajar. It was also transmitted via another route by 'Abdur Razzaaq in his Musannaf (2/219), Abu Ya'laa in his Musnad (3/1253), Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Kabeer (3/67/2) and Mu'jam al-Awsat (no. 4476 - my numbering) & Daaraqutni .

279 Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Siraaj with a saheeh sanad.

280 Ibn Khuzaimah, Baihaqi, Diyaa' in al-Mukhtaarah & 'Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (243/1) with a saheeh isnaad; Ahmad, Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Awsat (32/2), Baihaqi, Ibn al- Mulaqqin (29/1) and Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. Its takhreej is given in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel under hadeeth no. 327.

281 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Siraaj, Ibn Khuzaimah & Tabaraani.

*NB: The Ibaadiyyah have distorted this hadeeth: their scholar Rabee' has related it in his unreliable Musnad with a different wording to justify their view that raising the hands with takbeer invalidates the Prayer! That wording is false, as I have explained in ad-Da'eefah (6044).

282 Haakim & Dhahabi declared it saheeh; it has already been given in full under the opening "Takbeer".

283 The first supplication is the fullest form of the du'aa' known as kaffaarah al-majlis (expiation of the gathering); "he who says it in a gathering of Remembrance (of Allaah), it will be like a seal to stamp it with, and he who says it in a gathering of vain talk, it will be an expiation for it" - authentically related by Haakim and Tabaraan. The second supplication is, of course, from the Sunnah of sending peace and mercy on the Messenger. These two supplications are thus the best way of implementing the following Islamic guideline: "No people sit in a gathering in which they do not mention Allaah, nor send prayers on the Prophet, without it being a source of regret for them; if Allaah wishes, He will punish them, or if He wishes, he will forgive them" - authentically related by Tirmidhi, Haakim & Ahmad. See Shaykh Albaani's Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (74-81) for details.

1 If Ibn Ma'een speaks favourably about a narrator, wheras the rest of the scholars declare him to be weak, then the statement of Ibn Ma'een is disregarded, the reason being that he was known for his strictness and severity in criticism: weak narrators would be very careful not to reveal their weakness before him; he would therefore pass judgment accordingly. This explains why he is alone in authenticating the narrator.

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