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Footnotes (39)

570 Abu Daawood & Daaraqutni, who declared it saheeh.

571 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Abu Daawood & Ibn Maajah.

572 Maalik & Baihaqi with saheeh isnaads. Although this hadeeth is mawqoof, it is effectively marfoo', for it is known that this sort of thing is not said from personal opinion, since it were so, it would be no better than any other sayings of dhikr, as Ibn 'Abdul Barr has said.

*NB: In none of the types of tashahhud is there the addition: wa maghfiratuhu (... "and His forgiveness"), so one should not be accustomed to it. Hence some of the Salaf rebuked it, as the following narrations show:

Tabaraani (3/56/1) reported with a saheeh isnaad from Talhah bin Musarrif, who said: Rabee' bin Khaitham added during tashahhud, "... and His blessings, and His forgiveness"! So 'Alqamah said, "We stop where we were taught: Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allaah and His blessings"; 'Alqamah was actually following the example of his teacher 'Abdullaah bin Mas'ood (radi Allaahu 'anhu), from whom it is authentically-reported that he was teaching a man the tashahhud: when he got to "I bear witness that there is no (true) god except Allaah ...", the man said: "alone, He has no partner", to which 'Abdullaah said, "He is so, but we stop at where we were taught." (Transmitted by Tabaraani in Mu'jam al-Awsat, no. 2848, with a saheeh isnaad.)

573 Abu 'Awaanah in his Saheeh (2/324) & Nasaa'i .

574 They had said, "O Messenger of Allaah, we have been taught how to send peace on you (i.e. in tashahhud), but how do we send prayers on you? He said, "Say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad ..." etc. Thus he did not specify one tashahhud to the exclusion of another, so there is evidence here to establish sending prayers on him in the first tashahhud also. This is the way of Imaam Shaafi'i, as in the text of his book al-Umm, and it is held to be correct by his companions, as Nawawi has explained in al-Majmoo' (3/460) and supported in Rawdah Taalibeen (1/263). It is also the view of Wazeer bin Hubairah al-Hanbali in al-Ifsaah, as Ibn Rajab ha quoted and strongly supported in Dhail Tabaqaat (1/280). Many ahaadeeth exist about sending prayers on him (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) in tashahhud; in none of them is there any such specification mentioned. In fact, these ahaadeeth are general, hence including every tashahhud, and I have given them in al-Asl as ta'leeq, but not in the main text, for they do not satisfy our conditions for authenticity. However, they do support each other in meaning, and those who reject and oppose this have no authentic evidence to use as proof, as I have detailed in al-Asl. Similarly, to say that adding anything to "O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad" is makrooh has no basis in the Sunnah, nor is there any convincing proof for it. In fact, we see that whoever says this does not implement the previous instruction of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), "Say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad ..." ; there is more to this discussion in al-Asl.

575 One of the earliest views about the meaning of "sending prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)" is that of Abu al-'Aaliyah (with reference to Surah al-Ahzaab, 33:56), "Allaah's sending prayers on his Prophet means His exalting him and raising his rank; the angels' and others' sending prayers means their seeking this from Allaah, and here it is meant asking the prayers to be increased, not asking for the original prayer in itself." Ibn Hajar quoted this in Fath al-Baari, and went on to refute the widespread notion that the Lord's prayer on someone is His Mercy; Ibn al-Qayyim also clarified this in Jalaa' al-Afhaam, leaving little scope for further comment.

576 from barakah: growth, increase. Hence this supplication secures for Muhammad the good which Allaah granted to the family of Ibraaheem, continual, established good, as well as its multiplying and increase.

577 Ahmad & Tahaawi with a saheeh sanad.

578 see next note.

579 These two additions are conclusively found in Bukhaari, Tahaawi, Baihaqi, Ahmad & Nasaa'i . They also exist via different routes of narration in other types of this supplication (see nos. 3,7), and so do not be confused by Ibn al-Qayyim's view in Jalaa' al-Afhaam (p. 198), following in the footsteps of his great teacher Ibn Taymiyyah in al-Fataawaa (1/16), "There is no authentic hadeeth with the phrases 'Ibraaheem' and 'the family of Ibraaheem' together"; here, we have shown you such authentic ahaadeeth. Ibn al- Qayyim's error is further established by the fact that he himself declared no. 7 saheeh, which contains what he denied above!

580 Bukhaari, Muslim, Humaidi (138/1) & Ibn Mandah (68/2), who said, "There is consensus on this hadeeth being authentic."

581 Ahmad, Nasaa'i & Abu Ya'laa in his Musnad (44/2) with a saheeh sanad.

582 Muslim, Abu 'Awaanah, Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/132/1) & Abu Daawood; Haakim declared it saheeh.

583 Bukhaari, Nasaa'i, Tahaawi, Ahmad & Ismaa'eel al-Qaadi in Fadl as-Salaah 'alaa Nabi sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam (p. 28 1st ed., p. 62 2nd ed. with my checking).

584 Bukhaari, Muslim & Nasaa'i.

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